ap government chapter 1 political landscape

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  1. governement
     made up of individuals and institutions, vehicle through which policies are made and the affairs of the state are conducted
  2. politics
    the process of how policy decisions get made; the study of "who gets what, when, and how"
  3. thomas hobbes
    wrote The Leviathan; believed humans were selfishly individualistic and constantly at war with one another, therefore people must surrender themselves to rulers in exchange for protection from their neighbors.
  4. john locke
    wrote Second Treatise on Civil Government; used natural rights to support his social contract theory--the view tht the consent of the people is the only true basis of any sovereign's right to rule...individuals agree, through a contract, to form a government to protect their rights under natural law.  By agreeing to be governed, individuals agree to abide by the decisions made by the majority vote in the resolution
  5. monarchy
     the rule of one in the interest of all of his or her subjects
  6. totalitarianism
    ruler excerises unlimited power and individuals have no personal rights or liberties
  7. oligrachy
    participation in government is conditioned on the possession of wealth, social status, military position, or achievement
  8. democracy
    gives power to the people either directly or through their elected representatives
  9. social contract theory
    the belief that people are free and equal by God-given right and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed
  10. direct democracy
    a system of government in which members of the polity meet to discuss all policy decisions and then agree to abide by majority rule; example: ancient Greece
  11. indirect democracy
     a system of government that gives citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who will work on their behalf
  12. republic
    a government rooted in the consent of the governed; a representative or indirect democracy
  13. political culture
    commonly shared attitudes, beliefs, and core values about how government should operate
  14. personal liberty
    key characteristic of U.S. democracy; intially meant freedom from government interference; today it includes demands for fredom to engage in a variety of practices free from governmental discrimination
  15. equality
    reflects Americans' stress on the individual; "one person, one vote"--political equality
  16. popular consent
    the idea that governments must draw their powers from the consent of the governed
  17. popular sovereignty
    the right of the majority to govern themselves
  18. civil society
    society created when citizens are allowed to organize and express their views publicly as they engaged in an open debate about public policy
  19. individualism
    all individuals are deemed rational and fair; primary function of government is to enable the individual to achieve his or her highest level of development
  20. baby boom
    76.8 million people born after WWII (1946-1964) ; now reaching retirement age, putting a strain on Social Security and Medicare systems
  21. generation x
    liberatarian generation; 50 million born in the late 1960s through the mid 1970s; experiencd economic downturn in the late 1980s; believe political leaders ignore them and distrust the political process; believe capitalism can be used for social change
  22. generation y
    people born from 1977 to 1994; grown up in good times, optimistic about future; internet savvy and more globally focused
  23. political idealogy
    the coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals; the means by which the basic values held by a party, class, group or individual are articulated
  24. conservative
    one thought to believe that the government is best that governs the least and that big government can only infringe on individual, personal, and economic rights; a defender of the status quo who, when change is necessary in tested institutions or practices, prefers that it comes slowly, in moderation
  25. liberal
    one considered to favor extensive governmental involvement in the economy and the provision of social services and to take an activist role in proctecting the rights of women, the elderly, minorities, and the environment; currently one who believes in more government action to meet individual needs, originally one who resisted government encroachments on individual liberties
  26. libertarian
    one who favors a free market economy and no governmental interference in personal liberties
Card Set
ap government chapter 1 political landscape
vocabulary for American government
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