ANTHC 126 Final

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  1. Tribes
    • - clan-based social structure
    • - societies organized largely on the basis of kinship
    • - larger than bands, smaller than states
  2. Band
    • - simplest form of human society
    • - consist of a small kin group, no larger than an extended family or clan
    • - usually no more than 100 individuals
    • - loose organization, decisions made on a consesus base
  3. Cheifdoms
    • - political economy that organizes regional populations through a hierarchy of the chief
    • - more complex than a tribe or band, less complex than a state or civilization
    • - centralization of authority and pervasive inequality; elite and commoners
  4. States
    • - organized community living under a unifed political system and fovernment
    • - first known were created in Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Aztec
  5. Domestication of Plants and Animals
    - population of animals or plants that is changed at the genetic level through a process of selection, in order to accentuate traits that benefit humans

    - "pioner crops" - neolithic founder crops (flax, pea, chickpea, bitter vetch, lentil)
  6. Origins of Agriculture
    - "Neolithic Revolution"

    - small group of hunter-gatherers that built up into villages and towns that modified their natural environment by means of specialized food-crop cultivation that allowed extensive surplus food production (ex. irrigation, food storage)

    - provided the basis for high population density settlements, specialized and complex labor diversification, trading economies, art, non-portable art, etc.

    - first full-blown maifestation is seen in the Middle Eastern Sumerian cities (3,500 BCE)
  7. Social Stratification and Hierarchy
    - social stratification: a concpt involving the "classification of people into groups based on shared socio-economic conditions; A relational set of inequalities with economic, social, political, and ideological dimenstions"

    - hierarchy: an arrangement of items in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another
  8. Cemeteries
    - a spatially defined area where the remains of deceased people are buried or are otherwise interred

    - sometimes reffered to by the term "grave field"
  9. Mounds
    - artificiall hill of earth and stones built over the remains of the dead
  10. Pyramids
    - a structure whose shape is roughly that of a pyramid in a geometric sense

    - build by civilaztions in many parts of the world (Egypt most famous)
  11. Writing
    - representation fo laguage in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols; distinguished from illustration (cave drawing) and non-symbolic

    - first began in acient mesopotamia and ancient egypt
  12. Beringia
    - region surrounding the Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea, and the Bering Sea

    - includes the Bering land bridge, an ancient land bridge orughly 1,000 miles wide that connected Asia with N.America at various times during the Pleistocene ice ages
  13. Meadowcroft
    - a rockshelter site locaed near Avella, Pennsylvania

    - was inhabited for 16,000 years since Paleo-Indian times

    - largest collecton of flora and fauna materials ever recoverd from a location in easter N. America
  14. Fertile Crescent
    - a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and smi-arid W.Asia, and the Nile Valley, and the Nile Delta of N.E Africa

    - often called the "cradle of civilization" as it saw the development of many of the earliest human civilizations

    - writing, glass, and the wheel
  15. Jericho
    - a Palestinian city located near the Jordan River in the West Bank

    - first permanent setlement built near the Ein as-Sultan spring, "Pre-Pottery Neolithic A"

    - had prosperity during the Middle Bronze Age (circa 1700BCE)
  16. 'Ain Ghazal
    - Neolithic site located in N.W. Jordan, on the outskirts of Amman that was inhabited utnil 5000BC

    - one of the largest known prehistoric settlements in the Near East

    - known for a set of anthromorphic statues (half-size human figures modeled in white plaster around a core of bundled twigs) found buried in the pits in the civinity of some special buildings that have had ritual functions

    • - people buried some of their dead beneath floors of their houses or outisde in the surrounding terrain; skull bruied in a separate shallow pit
    • - not ever deceased was ceremoniously put to rest
  17. Swiss Lake Dwellings
    • - wooden houses on posts at the shores of Swtizerland's lakes; floors and walls were based on plaited twigs and chinks filled with clay
    • - new forms of sickles and barbed hooks during the Bronze Age
  18. Charavines
    • - a lake dwelling in Isere, France, which is underwater but well-preserved
    • - timber houses and dedrochronology gates the first village to 2740 BC

    flaked flint daggers with coiled willow handles
  19. Stonehenge
    - prehistoric monument located in the Enlgish county of Wiltshire contructed aywhere from 3000BC-2000BC

    - one of the most famou ssites in the world composed of a circular setting of large standing stones set within earthworks located at the centre of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, inclusing serveral hundred burial mounds
  20. Tigris & Euphrates
    - part of the paleartic Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh ecoregion in the flooded grasslands and savannas biome, located in W.Asia
  21. Eridu
    - long considered the earliest city in S. Mesopotamia and is still today argued to be the oldest city in the world

    - located 12km S.W of Ur, a conlomeration of Sumerian cities that grew about temples, almost in sight of one another

    - possible location of the Tower of Babel
  22. Uruk
    - ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river

    • - gave its name to the Uruk period (4000-3100BC)
    • - MAsk of Warka ("Lady of Uruk") recovered; oe of the earliest representations of the human face
  23. Ur
    • - important city-state in ancient Mesopotamia that was once a coastal city near the mouth of the Euphrates on the Persian Gulf
    • - dates from around 3800BC

    - marked by the ruins in the Ziggurat of Ur, which contained the shrine of Nanna
  24. Hierakonpolis
    • - religious and political capital of Upper Egypt at the end of the Predynasti period
    • - center of the Horus cult center, one of th emost anciet temples of egypt
  25. Giza
    • - third largest city in Egypt located on west bank fo the Nile River
    • - site of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world, uncluding a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures (sphynx and great pyramid of giza)
  26. Mesoamerica
    - region and cultural area in the Americas extending approximately from central Mexico, to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica

    - domestication of maize, beans, squash, chili, turkey, and dog that caused a transition from paleo-indian hunter-gatherer tribal grouping to the organization of sedentary agricultural villages
  27. San Jose Mogote
    - pre-columbian archaeological site of the Zapotec, a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in the region fo what is now the Mexican state of Oaxaca

    - considered to be the oldest permanent agricultural cillages in the Oaxaca Valley and is probably the first settlement in the area to use pottery
  28. La Venta
    - pre-Columbian archaeological site of the Olmec civiliation located in the prsent-day Mexican state of Tabasco

    - one of the earliest civilizations to develop in the Americas build from earth and clay (ot a lot of stone)
  29. Teotihuacan
    • - an enormous archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico containing some of the largest pyramidal structures build in the pre-Columbian Americas
    • - "where amn met the gods"
    • - known for its large residential complezes, the Avenue f the Dead, and well-preserved murals
  30. Tikal
    - one of the largest archaeological sites and urban centres of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization located in what is now northern Guatemala

    - captical of a conquest state that became one of the most powerful kingdoms of the ancient Maya
  31. Palenque
    - a Maya city-state in S. Mexico that flourshed in the 7th cenury

    - was absorbed into the jungle after its decline
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ANTHC 126 Final
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