1. what are the methods for determining body composition?
    • Lab
    • -underwater weighing
    • -bioelectric impedence
    • -magnetic imaging
    • Field
    • -BMI
    • -Skinfold measurements
    • -Waist Circumference
  2. What is BMI
    • Developed by Adolphe Qetelet; originally called Quetelet Index
    • internal measure of obesity
    • Formula
    • -BMI= kg/m2
    • u or J shape
  3. What are the 3 classifications of BMI?
    • underweight - <18.5
    • normal - 18.5<x<24.9
    • Overweight- >30
    • stage 1- 30-34.5
    • stage 2- 35-39.9
    • stage 3- >40
  4. What is the Harris-Benedict Equation and why is it not accurate?
    • 66+(13.7 x kg) + (5 x cm) - (6.8 x age) MEN
    • 655 + (9.6 x kg) + (1.8 x cm) - (4.7 x age) WOMEN

    does not take lean body mass into account
  5. What is Weight Loss in percent and what is maintenance?
    • Loss= 5%
    • Maintenance is between 3 and 5; easy to regain
  6. What is Essential and Ideal Fat?
    Essential - storage , around CNS and major organs, minimum of 3% of fat in Men and 12 for Women; when below, incrase risk for chronic disease and adverse immune reactions

    Ideal - men obese if they carry > 28% and women - >32
  7. how many METs is weight stability
    13-26 MET
  8. what are the ACSM reccomendations for weight training?
    • for healthy adults= 1 set 8-12
    • >50 years + frail = 1 set 10-15
    • 8-10 exercises 2-3 days/week
  9. What are fators that affect strength?
    • 1- Neural Stimulation (# of fibers a nerve can innervate varies, strength detemined by frequency and # of fibers)
    • 2- Fibre Type
    • 3- Overload
    • 4- Specificity
  10. What is the prevalence of cancer in the US?
    • 2nd leading cause of death (45% men 38% women)
    • 25% of all deaths
  11. Top deaths by males? females?

  12. Define cancer
    • uncontrolled abnormal cell growth and proliferation
    • -idiopathic (cause may never be known)
  13. What is the best way to describe how cancer progresses
    Multistage model of carcinogenesis- cascade toward uncontrolled proliferation (3 steps)

    • Initiation - genetic mutation, spontaneous change, external
    • Promotion - converted cells become precancerous
    • Progression - when precancerous become invasive tumors
  14. What are the 4 cancer groups?
    • Carcinoma (skin, tissue)
    • Sarcoma (bones, muscle, connective tissue)
    • Lumphoma (lymphatic system)
    • Leukemia (blood forming tissue)
  15. Most Common cancers in men and most deaths

  16. most common cancers in women and most deaths

  17. What are the types of lung cancers?
    • Non-small cell (most common, grows and spreads slowly)
    • Small cell (fast growing)
  18. What are the main Risk Factors of Prostate cancer
    • African-American males
    • Age
    • geneticsĀ 
  19. Symptoms of Prostate cancer
    • high PSA level
    • Delayed start of urinary system
    • Slow urinary stream
    • Straining when urinating
    • Blood in urine/semen
  20. Risk Factors for Colon cancer
    • age
    • African-American or Eastern European
    • Diet
    • Inflammatory Bowel
    • Genetics
  21. Breast Cancer types
    • Ductal Carcinoma (starts in ducts that transport milk; most common)
    • Lobular (start in lobules where milk is produced)
  22. What are some ways to prevent cancer?
    • eliminate tobacco use
    • moderate alcohol consumption
    • maintain healthy and balanced diet
    • limit sun exposure
    • be active
    • Radiation Therapy (high energy radiation to shrink and kill tumors)
    • Hormone (offered if tumor is hormone receptor positive; removes hormones from body or blocks actions to limit cell growth)
  23. Benefits of PA during Cancer
    • increased energy levels
    • relieves stress
    • decreases anxiety and depression
    • stimulates appetite
    • better physical functioning
    • reduces fatigue
    • improves self-esteem
  24. Cancer and physical activity in the colon
    • relationship between PA and reduced cancer risk strongest for colon and breast cancers
    • some evidence suggesting PA decreass risks of lung and endometrial
    • Colon (24% lower risk with active people)
  25. Breast Cancer and PA
    • women who are active reduce risk 25-30%
    • brisk walking 45-60 mins/day for 5 days/week
  26. Mechanisms through which PA reduces risk
    • Specific are unknown
    • Potential mechanisms
    • - avoidance of weight gain/loss
    • -reduced insulin resistance
    • - decrease systemic low-grade inflammation
    • - decrease colon transit time
    • - decrease production of sex hormones
    • - improved immune function
  27. Guidelines for PA with cancer
    • 150 minutes mod or 75 vig aerobic
    • muscle strengthening 2 or more days/week
    • survivors can reduce adverse effects
  28. What is Depression
    • Feelings of dispair
    • depressed mood most of the day nearly everyday
    • loss of interest or pleasure in most activities
    • significant weight loss or gain w/out dieting
    • sleep disturbance
    • feelings of lethargy
    • fatigue
    • motor disturbance
    • feelings of worthlessness
    • reduced ability to think
    • suicidal
  29. What are the symptoms of major depression
    • psychomotor agitation or retardation
    • fatigue or loss of energy
    • feelings of guilt
    • recurrent suicidal thoughts
  30. How does depression develop
    • genetic
    • social/cognitive
    • biological factors
    • biochemical changes in brain
    • - neurotransmitters imbalance
    • - dysregulation of HPA axis
  31. What are anxiety disorders
    extreme apprehension of worry with restlessness, tension, elevated breathing and HR
  32. 2 types of anxiety
    State- fluctuating, transient, temporary

    Trait- constant and persistent
  33. Causes for anxiety disorders
    • Genetic
    • Chemical imbalances
    • Life events
  34. What is PA prescription for anxiety
    • 30 minutes of aerobic PA
    • intensity between 55 and 90%
  35. Stages of a panic attack
    • Palpitations
    • Trembling
    • Sweating
    • Chills
    • Fear of Dying
    • Dyspnea
    • Derealization
    • Dizziness
    • Chest Pain
    • Nausea
    • Numbness
    • fear of uncontrolled behavior
    • Fear of choking
  36. Biological adaptations of PA to anxiety disorders
    • body warming
    • increase blood to brain
    • release of endorphins
    • alleviates impalance within ANS
    • stimulates brain neurotransmitters and other chemicals (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin)
  37. What happens to PA when men age
    no leisure time PA increases mainling with nonhispanic white then non hispanic black
  38. What are the effects of aging
    decrease in sensations, mental ability, organ function, bone and muscle mass, physical fitness
  39. What is Sarcopenia
    • loss of muscle mass and decline in muscle quality observed with increasing age
    • linked to falls, functional decline, osteoporosis glucose intolerance
  40. What are some changes in aging muscle
    • decrease in muscle mass and cross sectional area
    • decrease force produced by single muscle cell
    • infiltration of fat and connective tissue
    • decrease in # and sieze of type II fibers
    • decrease # of motor units
  41. What happens to CR function when trained
    improves max O2 consumption 22%
  42. What happens int he different paramters of the CV function with PA
    • Max CO
    • endothelial reactivity
    • max skeletal muscle BF
    • capillary density
    • Arterial distensibility
    • Plasma V, hematocrit
  43. What is Compression of Morbidity
    Compression - concept of pushing all the morbidity of one's life into as small a time period as possible

    COM- goal of living disease and illness free as long as possible
  44. Paffenburger information
    • 22 Boston Marathons
    • 150 lifetime
    • set records
    • started running at age 45
  45. What are the 5 steps to successful PA advocacy
    • Examine scientific evidence about PA
    • Communicate key findings with policy makers
    • Offer credible evidence-based strategies to increase PA
    • Mobilize a strategy for advocacy
    • Continue communications and create a demand for change
  46. What are the key questions for partnerships
    • Do I need a partnership for accomplishing my goal
    • Who should i recruit
    • Once partnership is created who should lead
    • What are the goals for partnership
    • How will partnership operate
    • What is the partnership focus
    • How do we get to our long term goal
    • Is it working
  47. What is relapse prevention
    • Identify risks for stopping PA program
    • plan to cope with them
    • palce consequences for missing a PA session
    • Expect and plan for lapses
    • Don't have all or onthing
    • Rule out thoughts and images that support being active
    • Regular follow-up
  48. What are leadership strategies for Active Texas 2020
    • Imperative for Leadership and Collaboration (establish coordinated leader first)
    • Community Goals and Tools to achieve them (community defines what they want)
    • Strategies and reserves to reach community goals (Evidence based, getting resources and sustaining the initiative, return an investment)
    • Implementing and Evaluating Plans to increase PA
  49. US National PA Plan
    • example of a partnership with the goal of increasing PA
    • 6 other countries already had plans
  50. Strategies for PA advocacy
    • PA has convincing scientific evidence and a broad support base to justify its global advocacy
  51. What are lessons learned from antismoking campaigns
    • Small group of dedicated persistent media-savvy and politically astute leaders and agitators can have a big effect
    • Need Broad based support and well networked coalitions
    • Commitment is crucial
    • Effective interventions need to be implemented
    • Issue of individual vs. environment action must be address early often and well
    • Acknowledging harm is necessary but not sufficient
    • Decades of effort
  52. What is the Toronto charter for PA
    • More political and social commitment on national level to support health enhancing PA
    • Advocates 4 actions
    • - implementing national plan for PA promotion
    • - introducing policies to support PA
    • - reorienting services and funding to make physical activity a priority in education, transportation, built environment, health care
    • - developing effective partnership for action
  53. what is a community guide
    A way for people to choose programs to mimprove health and prevent disease

    A group of people who give options to thier communities
  54. What are some behavioural changes
    • Increase knowledge about health benefits
    • Increase knowledge about where and how to be active within communities
    • May help identify personal and environmental reasons they are inactive
    • Can let ppl know when opportunites for PA arise
  55. WHat is the #1 reason people are inactive
  56. Community Campaigns
    • 3 main characteristics
    • 1. include many sectors
    • 2. visible, broadly targeted strategies
    • 3. successful if they are included in other activities that focus on PA related issues
  57. What do Community Campaigns do exactly
    • Increase % of people who report regular PA by 4.2%
    • Increase caloric expenditure by 16%
    • increase knowledge of exercise and PA
    • Increase intentions for PA
  58. What are Mass-Media Campaigns
    Campaigns that rely on msging efforts to change PA behaviour through changes in knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes
  59. Characteristics of Mass Media
    • Messages to large groups
    • Anyone a targe
    • Aimed to Change beliefe
    • All media and social media
  60. Reasons MMC are not successful
    • Messages may not have bee consistent
    • Target behaviour was inconsistent
    • May not have been sequenced correctly
    • Resources didn't reach deeply into target audiences or to evaluate effeciveness
    • Cannot be used in isolation
  61. What is Active Australia
    Examine effectiveness of 2 different motivational signs which encouraged shoppers to take stairs or escalator
  62. Methods of Active Australia
    2 signs placed in area with 2 flights of 15 stairs and escalator 1 for waistline 1 for health
  63. Pattern for Active Australia
    • 4.8% of stair use was because of no sign
    • 6.9 were health benefits
    • 7.2 were waistline

    More caucasioans than African-American; more with weight control
  64. What was done to account for African-American community
    • ideas were gatherd from community
    • put an African-American ont he sign
    • the rates went up after
  65. What are some things that being actiev can help children with?
    • Improve health
    • Grow stronger
    • Do better in school
    • Improe fitness
    • Enjoy playing with firneds
    • Feel happier
    • Maintain healthy weight
    • Improve self-confidence
    • Learn new skills
  66. What are the main factors of Healthy People 2020
    • PA-3: increase proportion of adolescents who meet current Federal PA guidelines for aerobic PA and muscle strengthing
    • PA-8: increase proprotion of children who don't exceed recommended limits for sedentary time; increase proportion of 0-2 who don't have TV time
    • PA-6: increase regularly scheduled recess; states and school districts
    • PA-4: increase proproiton of Nation's schools that require PE for all stduents at all levels
  67. CDN sedentary Behaviour Guidelines
    • children aged 5-11 shold minimize time spent being sedentary each day by
    • -Limiting Tv time to no more than 2 hrs/day
    • - limiting sedentary transport, extended sitting, time indoors
  68. What is the Coordinated School Health Model
    • primary health framework for promoting school health and increasing PA and has 8 components
    • - Health Ed
    • - PE
    • - Health services
    • - Nutrition services
    • - Counselling
    • - Healthy and Safe school environment
    • - Health promotion for staff
    • - Family and community
  69. What was the SPARK program
    Sports Play and Active Recreation for Kids - Pe program that promoted the use of enjoyable PA during PE classes coupled with teaching movement skills
  70. Method of SPARK
    7 schools chosen at random were divided into either classes led by a trained PE teacher or a random other teacher
  71. Results of SPARK
    schools with SPARK program achieved more mins/week of PA and spent more time being active
  72. Development Considerations when teaching PE
    • In preschool - engaging in general PA that develops and improves motor skills
    • Middle school - empahsis should shift towards individual and group activites; facrotrs that encourage youth to be active and maintain it
  73. What is the Health Belief Model
    • Janz 2002
    • people became active if feel risk or negative health outcome
    • expect by being active risk of negative health outcome is reduced
    • believe can intiate and maintain PA
  74. What is the Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behaviour?
    • Azjen
    • intentions depent on
    • - Beliefs about PA weighted by evaluations of beliefs (Behavioural attitude)
    • - Beliefs of others about PA weighted by value attributed to these opinions (Subjective Norms)
    • - Perceived ease or difficulty of being active (perceived behavioural)
    • - Intention increases likelihood of behaviour
  75. What is the Social Cognitive Model
    • Bandura 1986
    • Reciprocal relationship btwn personal, environment, and PA
    • Beliefs informed by physical and social environments
    • Process occurs through observational learning and reinforcement
  76. What is the Self Determination Model
    • Ryan and Deci 2000
    • Intrinsic Motivation (motivation is internal)
    • Integraded Regulation (Regulations are adopted into one's values)
    • Regulation through Identification (behaviour important, contingent upon reward which is external)
    • Introjected Regulation (behvaiour not fully accepted as one's own)
    • External Regulation (behaviours performed to satisfy external demand/reward)
    • Amotivation (lack of intent to act)
  77. What is the main idea in the Transtheoretical Theory
    • continuum of behaviour with 5 stages to classify how prepared someone is to change their behaviour
    • knowing the stage of readiness allows practiions to tailer behavioural intervention programs to match stage
  78. What are the 5 stages of the TTM
    • Precontemplation (not ready; not intending to become active in forseeable future)
    • Contemplation (getting ready; may be thinking about making a change and being active; weighing pros and cons)
    • Preparation (ready; initiaion to be more active in immediate future; small steps)
    • Action (individual made changes to PA behaviours
    • Maintenance (consistently active for 6 months and doesn't want relapse)
  79. What is the first TTM construct
    • Decisional Balance
    • - relative weighing of pros and cons and decision to take action
    • -- vaires depending on stage
    • -- cons of changing outweighs pros in precontemplation
    • -- pros surpass cons in prep
    • -- pros outweigh cons in action
  80. TTM 2nd concept
    Self-Efficacy (confidence/perceived ability a person may have to accept challenges and be active despite things that deter them)
  81. Self-Efficacy
    • high self-efficacy increases odds of particiption in regular PA over 12 months
    • - strongest predictor of exercise maintence
  82. What are the barriers for PIA
    • Contextual/structural (lack of time, equipment access, and bad weather)
    • Built environment (urban sprawl)
  83. PA barriers
    • social and cognitive (low self-efficacy, lack of energy, knowledge, fear of injur, lack of motivation)
    • May be mediated by social gender roles
  84. Behaviour Change ways
    • Substitution
    • Social Support
    • Self-reward
    • Commitment
    • Reminders
  85. What is Project Active
    • Dunn 1999
    • 35-60 year old people to participate in 2 year adopted behaviour chosen program
    • divided into 2 groups - 1. Structured Exercise and 2. Lifestyle Exercise (cognitive and behavioural strategies to encourage positive lasting changes)
  86. What was the point of Project Active
    • would Lifestyle Exercise group increase PA as result of individually adopted intervention?
    • would levels of PA differ between the groups?
  87. Implications of Project Active
    • lifestyle group showed equivalent increase in energy expenditure from PA compared to structured exercise group
    • also increase in aerobic fitness
  88. What is Point of Decision Prompting
    • evidence based strategy for PA promotion
    • @ point of decision prompt is placed to encouarge selection
  89. What is social support
    • the dgree to which ppl perceive that they are receiving assistance to overcome health challenges
    • key to promoting PA through integration into existing behaviour theories or as stand alone strategy
  90. What is a Program Evaluation for
    • set of strategies to help us understand what happened as a result of our efforts
    • quesions asked
    • - does it work
    • - what is the desired effect
    • - what led to success
    • can be used to plan for resources
    • identify strengths and weaknesses
  91. PA Evaluation framework helps in what
    • Development and follow-through of evaluation strategies for PA program in 6 steps
    • 1. Engage stakeholders
    • 2. Describe and plan progress
    • 3. Refine Eval
    • 4. Gather data
    • 5 Develop conclusions
    • 6 communicate findings
  92. What are ways to measure program and policy effectedness
    • Formative Eval
    • Process Eval
    • Outcome Eval
    • Cost-Effectiveness
  93. What is Formative eval
    • focus on needs, utility, and design features of PA program
    • what might enhand participation
  94. What is process eval
    • focus on program/policy implementation
    • how well PA program operating and what can be improved
    • deliver strategies/alternatives
  95. What is outcome eval
    focus on cause and effect
  96. What is cost-effectiveness eval
    • focus on economics of progression; often overlooked
    • assess delivery cost and compare to alternate methods
    • has most influence
  97. What is a Logic Model
    • will assist in eval and program development
    • provide hub where everyhing can be seen
    • description of processes that lead to results
    • most fundamental use: ensure consistent communication
Card Set