APCOGO russia

  1. First few years of russian federation

    • –Uncertainty
    • regarding the regimes future

    • –Abrupt
    • change in leadership goals and style between Yeltsin and Putin also made it
    • difficult to follow continuous threads in policy over the years.

    • •Alternating
    • between reform and authoritarianism.
  2. Current economical issues
    • •How
    • much central planning should be cut, how should market econ be handled.

    • •Shock
    • Therapy (Yeltsin) à
    • small group of entrepreneurs running the econ

    • •1997,
    • bottom fell out  when the govt
    • defaulted on $billions in debt 

    • •Under
    • SU, jobs were secure – now unemployment soared
  3. Mendvedev's economy priorities
    • •improve
    • infrastructure, innovation, investment, reducing the states role in the econ,
    • reform tax system and banking sector, diversify economy
  4. Characteristics of current economy
    • –1997-2007,
    • the econ steadily improved (privatized industries)

    • –2008
    • - econ took a blow when oil prices dropped.

    • –Sept.
    • 2008 – global econ crisis à many
    • people are disillusioned with the new regime, and question the wisdom of
    • current policy makers.

    • –Today
    • – fueled by huge oil and gas reserves and the corporation (mostly state run)
    • that own them
  5. Terrorism
    • –Number
    • of acts in terror in recent years

    • •Beslan
    • School Seige in
    • 2004

    • •Suicide
    • bombing near a subway in Moscow, and bombs went off in 2 Russian planes almost
    • simultaneously (before school)

    • –Put
    • responded with reform to boost security (tighter grip from central government
    • would foil terrorists)

    • –Also
    • had political reform where top officials would not longer be directly elected,
    • but selected by the president, then approved.

    • •Attacks
    • calmed for a few years, but reasserted themselves in the summer of 2009
  6. Civil Society
    • –1)
    • public life defined by government

    • –2)
    • private life where people are free to make individual choices.

    • •Country
    • with strong civil society, people follow rules, operate with a degree of trust,
    • generally have respectful dealings

    • •Democracy
    • and  capitalism depend on civil society
    • for successful operation
  7. Constitutional Court
    • –19
    • members appointed by the pres. and approved by the FC

    • to make sure all laws and decrees are constitutional

    • –Putin
    • moved the court form Moscow to St. Petersburg

    • –Constitutional
    • Court created a Supreme Court
  8. Supreme Court
    • final
    • court of appeal. No power to challenge the constitutionality of laws and other
    • official actions of the Leg. and Exec. bodies.
  9. Constitution of 1993
    • attempted
    • to build a judicial system that is not controlled by the executive à Constitutional Court
    •  provided for a strong president, although the power was checked by popular election and lower house of legislature, required referendum of people to endorse it
    • PROBLEM: most prosecutors and attorneys were trained under the Soviet legal system, so the judiciary currently suffers form a lack of expertise in carrying out the responsibilities outilined the Constitution
    • –3 branch government, President, PM, the Duma, and a Constitutional Court 
  10. Duma (lower house)
    • •450
    • deputies

    • •Proportional
    • representation (since ‘07)

    • •Passes
    • Bills

    • •Approves
    • the budget

    • •Confirms
    • the pres.’s political appointments

    • –These
    • are limited powers (the Pres. can rule by decree)

    • –Duma’s
    • attempts to check the PM have failed.

    • –Duma
    • is controlled by Putin because his Party (United Russia) has most of the seats
    • – it still wields some power in the drafting of legislation.

    • –Duma
    • debates the bills that must pass the deputies’ vote before they become laws.
  11. The federation Council (upper house)
    • 2 members from each of the 89 federal administrative units
    • –Their
    • purpose is to represent regions, not the population.

    • –Power
    • to delay legislation (just like GB)

    • –If
    • FC rejects legislation, the Duma may override the FC with a 2/3 vote
  12. Powers of the president
    • –Appoint the PM and Cabinet
    • –Issuedecrees that have the force of law

    •Pres.has a cabinet with a great deal of concentrated, centralized power.

    • •Dumahas no power to censure the cabinet (except reject
    • appointment of PM)

    –Dissolvethe Duma
  13. Structructure of government
    • •Structurewas established by Constitution of 1993
    • –Presidential
    • and Parliamentary Systems àHybrid  
    • Semi-presidential system
    • •Strongpresidency
    • •Democraticchecks on executive power
    • •PUTIN
    • has commanded the executive branch (clearly dominating the other branches)
    • Bicamerial legistlation
  14. Russian Media
    • –Pravda:Official newspaper of the SU, now a tabloid
    • –Newspapers and TV stations are now privately owned (the state controls most of them though)
    • –Reporting of the school seizure at Beslan in ‘04
    • –Uncertain how much freedom of the press is ‘enjoyed’
    • –Novaya Gazeta – 5violent deaths
    • •Message: do not criticize the govt.
  15. Russian Mafia
    • –Controls more than ‘underworld crime’ like local businesses, natural resources, and banks
    • –Thrive on pay offs from businesses (protection money), money laundering, deals they make with govt. officials.
    • –Murdered: bankers, journalists, businessmen, Duma members
    • –Threat to the survival of the new democracy
  16. State corporatism
    • –The state determines which groups have in put into policymaking 
    • –Russia has well-established, state-owned holding companies in automobile and aircraft manufacturing, shipbuilding, nuclear power, diamonds, titanium, etc.
    • Insider privatization (put in people loyal to Putin/govt
  17. Oligarchy
    •  form of government in which a few people have the power, Yeltsin created one using family
    • –Putin shows resistance to the Oligarchs
    • •Berezovsky (and Gusinisky) now in exile
    • •Mikhail Khodorvsky
    • •Oligarchs have withdrawn from political activity (but Putin now has a narrower base support from econ leaders)
  18. Reformist parties
    • –Yabloko
    • •Pro-democracy
    • •Grigori Yavlinski
    • •Lost all seats in Duma in 2007
    • –Union Right Forces
    • •Free-market and privatization of industry
    • •Lost all seats in Duma in 2007
  19. Some measure putin has imposed
    • –Creation of super-districts
    • –Removal of governors
    • –Appointment of governors
    • –Changes in the Federation Council
    • –Elimination of single-member-district seats in the Duma
    • –RESULT:
    • The “Federation” is highly centralized.
  20. –Rural/Urban Cleavages
    • •Industrialization à increasing urban population
    • •73% of Russians living in cities (primarily in Western Russia)
    • •Wide econ divide between rural and urban people
    • •City dwellers: more educated, in touch with Western culture
  21. Nationality Clevages
    • •80% Russians
    • •Sizeable numbers of Tatars, Ukrainians, Armenians, Chuvashes, Bashkis, Byelorussians, and Moldavians.
    • •These cleavages determine the organization of the country into a “federation” with “autonomous regions,” republics, and provinces who’s borders are based on ethnicity.
  22. Political culture shaped by
    • Geography
    • Cultural orientation
    • conflicting attutiudes towards the state
  23. glasnost
    Openness. More discussion of political, social and economic issues as well as open criticism of the government. (Applauded by western nations – causing many problems for Gorb.)  After so many years of repression, people vented hostility toward the govenrment – encouraging revolt. Especially republics that watned independence from Soviet control.
  24. Perestroika:
    • Most radical reform. Least successful reform.  Keep old soviet structure, and moderinze form within.  Transfer of many economic powers held by the central govt to private hadns and
    • the market economy. Restructuring.
  25. •Nikita Khrushchev
    • –Denounced the purges
    • –Secret Speech
    • –deStalinization
    • –Peaceful-coexistance
    • –Failurein the Cuban Missile Crisis and most reforms didn’t appear to be working  by the early 60s.
    • –Replacedby Leonid Brezhnev. 
Card Set
APCOGO russia
APCOGO russia