1. List/Describe the 4 types of hypersensitivity reactions
    • Type I (anaphylactic): <30 minutes.
    • Antigen binds to mast cells/basophils which release mediators
    • Localized - Hives, hay fever, asthsma
    • Systemic - May result in circulatory collapse and death
    • Type II (cytotoxic): 5-12 hours.
    • Involves ab againts ag on surface of cells (ABO blood)
    • Type III (immune complex): 3-8 hours.
    • Antibodies + soluble antigens = immune complexes
    • Type IV (delayed cell-mediated): More than a day.
    • Due to TD cells, cytokines attract macrophages and TC cells which initiate tissue damage
    • Allergic contact dermititis
  2. Autoimmune diseases
    • Lupus: autoantibodies made against nuclear constituents of all cells
    • Rheumatoid arthritis: autoantibodies against collagen in CT
    • Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: destruction of insulin-secreting cells of pancreas by T cells
  3. Stem cells and why they can transform transplantation medicine
    Pluripotent cells which avoid rejection
  4. Define privelege site and explain its importance in transplantation
    • Privelege sites DO NOT cause an immune response
    • As such we can use alternate tissues like pig heart valves
  5. Define grafts: list/briefly describe the 4 types
    • Autograft: use of ones own tissue
    • Isograft: use of identical twin's tissue
    • Allograft: use of tissue from another person
    • Xenograft: use of nonhuman tissue
  6. Goal of bone marrow transplants + what is graft vs host disease, and how it is overcome
    • Bone marrow transplants provide recipient with B and T cells
    • G vs H disease: transplanted immunocompetent cells attack host.  Use of umbilical cord blood alleviates this issue
  7. Define immune deficiency, list/describe the two types
    • Inability of body to make and sustain an adequate immune response
    • Congenital: due to defective/missing genes
    • Acquired: result of life experiences
  8. All about AIDS
    • HIV infects CD4 cells: immune system slowly loses CD4 cells
    • AIDS = CD4 count bellow 200 cells/microliter
    • CCR5 gene mutation prevents binding of HIV virus (immunity)
    • Transmission through: sex, breast milk, placenta, blood
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