Music 110

  1. list romanticism keywords
  2. Individual
    •  Nature
    •  Emotion
    •  Exoticism (expansion/boundlessness)
    •  Nation
    •  Symbol
    •  Word
    •  Middle Class
    •  Masterwork/Virtuoso
    •  Women 
  3. When was the Romantic Period?
  4. What were some Romanticism philosophy and historical features?
    • 1820–1900
    • 2.Parallels movement in art history
    • 3. Outgrowth of the revolutions
    • 4. Power transferred to middle class
    • 5. Importance of the individual
    • 6. Personal freedom prized
    • 7. Personal expression prioritized
    • 8. Natural (raw) emotions eclipse intellectualism

    • a. wildness of nature
    • (1) era of landscape painting

    • b. the picturesque
    • c. the descriptive
    • d. the passionate
    • e. the dramatic 

    • 9. Exoticism
    • a. boundlessness: looking to other cultures
    • b. emotional flavor and picturesqueness

    • 10. Symbolism, allusion, suggestion, ambiguity
    • a. find return to the ornate, lush, irregular

    • 11. Nationalism
    • a. era of nation-state construction
    • b. the soul of the nation is found in folklore
    • c. folkloric subjects
    • d. nature, landscape, rurality = kinship with

  5. List some musical characteristics of Romanticism
    • Art transcends life; Person and Art are one
    • a. Great composers and their Masterworks

    • 2. Boundlessness as expansion
    • a. orchestra

    • b. movements and works
    • c. themes
    • d. phrases
    • e. tonality

    • (1) chromaticism
    • f. dynamics

    • g. timbres, instrument combinations
    • h. technical demands on performers

    • (1) virtuosity
    • (2) facilitated also by technological

    improvements to instruments
  6. What can best categorize Mugorsky's Picture at an Exhibition?
    Russian Popularism, Realism, and Nationalism
  7. Who visualized Mugorsky's Picture at an Exhibition?
    painting by Victor Hartmann
  8. What was the message behind Mugorsky's Picture at an Exhibition?
    political agenda and supported by the "Mighty Five", which Mugorsky was involved
  9. Who wrote Picture at an Exhibition and when?
    Mussorsky and 1874
  10. Picture at an exhibition used which type of language?
    Everyday language of Russian folk songs
  11. Who were apart of the Mighty Five or the Mighty Handful?
    Mussorsky, Borodin, Cui, Rimsy-Korsakov, Balakirev
  12. What happened during 19th Century Russia?
    • 1. The Wanderer painting
    • 2. artistic movement
    • 3. Populists vs. Cosmopolitans
    • 4. free music schools vs. expensive conservatories
  13. Who did Rimsky-Korsakov taught?
    Igor Stravinsky
  14. What do the Wanderer paintings represent?
  15. How did 19th Century Russia created a national music style?
    • 1. used folk songs and instrumental tunes
    •    -created new harmonic and modal structures that dissolved major-minor tonality
    • 2.  Viewd customs, vernacular language, legends, and folk tales
    • 3. Inspiration from people, places, things, promote nationalism
  16. Describe 19th century Russian Chorus
    • 1. a capella
    • 2. women sang in low voice range while men sang in high range
    • 3. entrances are together than staggered
    • 4. include men, women, and mixed group...mostly women now
    • 5.  solo begins all songs and is followed by chorus
  17. what is Russian chorus called?
  18. what is russian solo entrance called?
  19. Describe the melodies of Russian chorus
    • 1. songs of everyday life
    • 2. in modal modes: aeolian, mixylodian, dorian, etc.
    • 3. features falling fifths and fourths
    • 4. irregular pulse
    • 5. repetitive motives
  20. describe 19th century russian music texture
    • 1. improvised
    • 2. heterophony
    • 3. repetitive motives and music leaning towards tonic
  21. when did Ravel orchestrated Picture at an exhibition?
  22. List some of Victor Hartmann's paintings
    • 1. The Jew in the fur cap
    • 2. the poor jew from sandomir
    • the sketches of costumes from "Trilby"
    • paris catacomb
    • hut of baba yaga in form of clock
    • plan for a city's gate
  23. What lead to populism?
    Alexander II's educational reforms
  24. what were some characteristics of Russian populism?
    • rebelling against aristocracy
    • depict art in the eyes of peasants
    • revived and populized folktales and legends
  25. Artists of the Wanderers
    Repin, Ge, Surikov, Kramskoi
  26. When was the Wanderers founded?
  27. Why were the mighty five important?
    • russian composers
    • created russian school of composition
    • created nationalistic musical styles
    • used russian traditions and cultures for inspirations
    • use of folktunes
    • use of russian language
  28. Describe the wanderers painting techniques
    • photographic painting technique
    • contemporary
    • used living people
    • great detail attention
  29. who comprised of the artistic movement of literature for 19th century russia?
    Tolstoy, Puskin, Lermontov, Dostoevsky
  30. list several of Mussorsky's compositions
    • Picture at an Exhibition,1874
    • Night on a bald mountain, 1867
    • cycle, 1874
    • songs and Dances of cycle, 1875
    • the cycle 1872
    • Khrovanshina
  31. in the picture at an exhibition, what language was the promenade in and which movement?
    russian and 1,3, 4, and 7 
  32. Ballet of the unhatched chicks in picture at an exhibition was which movement and in what language?
    8 and french
  33. the bogatyrs gate was which movement of PX, represents which ancient capitol city, and in what language?
    • 14th movement
    • city of Kiev
    • language is Russian
  34. the hut on hen's legs is which movement of PX and what language?
    • 13th movement
    • Russian language
  35. how is PX romantic?
    • tone poem
    • programmatic music-tells story of Mussorskys visit to art museum
    • melodies changes moods often 
    • exotic subjects like Baba yaga, catacombs, from other lands
    • used 6 different languages
  36. how is PX nationalistic?
    • use of folklore
    • inspirations from history: Kiev
    • created new compositional style
  37. how does PE represents populist realism?
    • self portrait of living people
    • folkloric and historical people
    • social connections  to paintings
  38. describe experimentalism
    • used asian and other non western music influences
    • close boundaries of sound and noise
    • created microtones
  39. what were some of the major 20th century music trends?
    serialism, experimentalism, electronic music, neo-romanticism, minimalism, post-minimalism, spirit minimalism
  40. list some of John cage childhood
    • went to Pomona college
    • studied under Cowell and influenced by Schoenberg
  41. what was the composition style characteristics of John Cage?
    Asian influences from Indonesia and China
  42. Tell two things about I Ching(Book of Changes)
    • inspired by China
    • composed by John Cage
  43. Who created 4'33"?
    John Cage to close gap between noise and sound
  44. Who wrote Prepared Piano? What year? Styles?
    • John Cage, 1938
    • inspired by Javanese Gamelan....sounds very rhythmic
    • objects were inserted between key strings of piano
  45. Why did John Cage became fascinated with gamelan?
    • heterophony
    • interlocking rhythms and melodies
    • "exotic"
  46. Who composed Sonatas and Interludes, Sonata V? When?
    John Cage, 1946
  47. Describe Sonatas and Interludes, Sonata V by John Cage, 1946
    • 16 sonatas divided into 4 groups of 4
    • grand piano keys were adjusted with objects in between key strings to emulate gamelan 
    • binary form
    • chromaticism...stepwise melody
    • sounds percussive
  48. list 4 things about the origins of minimalism
    • US movement
    • originally an art movement
    • *abstract modernism*
    • simple geometric shapes
    • no extreme contrasts
    • subtle variation
  49. Describe minimalism music composition style
    • largely tonal
    • cyclinal
    • repetitive motives, fragments, rhythms
    • gradual or subtle musical transformation
    • accentuate pulse
  50. who was the originator of minimalism?
    la monte young
  51. who were the five minimalist composers?
    • la monte young
    • riley
    • reich
    • glass
    • john adams
  52. which two composers were post-minimalists?
    reich and adams
  53. describe hindustani classical music
    • drones
    • tabla/tal
    • modes depended on mood/daytime: Rag or Raga
    • improvisation
    • repetitive rhythmic cycle
  54. which countries inspired La monte young? which compositional style does he prefer?
    • hindustani and japan
    • prefers drones, hums, sustained sounds
  55. which countries inspired Riley? which compositional style does he prefer?
    • hindustani and jazz improvisations
    • influenced by la monte young
  56. who were classmates learning under Pran Nath?
    Riley and young
  57. who wrote In C? when?
    Riley, 1964
  58. which countries influenced Glass?
    Hindustani, middle east
  59. glass worked for whom during his career?
    ravi shankar
  60. who composed Floe from glassworks?
  61. Describe Glass's musical style
    • constant pulse
    • "structural music"
    • arpeggios
    • focus on harmonic changes
  62. Explain Balinese gamelan
    • interlocking of parts
    • driving pulse
    • rhythmic cycle
    • ostinati
  63. explain javanese gamelan
    • driving pulse
    • instrument tune in pairs
    • quick changes in tempos
    • abrupt stops and starts
    • more metallic sounds
  64. describe african musical characteristics
    • hocketing/interlocking
    • repetitive patterns
    • polyrhythmic/polymeter
    • driving meter
    • improv
  65. Where did Glass get his inspiration from? Steve Reich? Riley?
    • Glass: Hindustani, Himalayas, Middle East
    • Reich: Balinese and Africa
    • Riley: Hindustani and Jazz
  66. describe reich's musical style
    • cycles
    • syncopation
    • interlock
    • driving
    • focus on accoustic instruments
  67. what were some of reichs pieces?
    • music for pieces of wood
    • six marimbas
    • electric counterpoint
    • city life
  68. what inspired reich's electric counterpoint?
    african ensemble
  69. what's globalization?
    transcending coventional time and space
  70. what promoted globalization?
    • products "trafficking"
    • technology
    • mass media
    • multiple identities/ communities
  71. who influenced john adams?
    reich and cage
  72. who composed the doctor atomic?
    john cage
  73. which topics does john adams usually compose for?
    contemporary controversial topic
  74. describe john adams musical style
    • pots-romantic
    • more lush harmonies and melodies
    • grandiose
  75. list some of john adams works
    • doctor atomic
    • death of klinghoffer
    • nixon in china
    • the chairman dances
    • shaker loops
    • chamber symphony
  76. when was doctor atomic written?
  77. who was a proponent of spiritual minimalism?
  78. describe spiritual minimalism
    • a european movement
    • inspirations from sacred texts
    • modal or tonal
    • metered or unpulsed
  79. what is tintinabulation?
    ringing bells
  80. describe arvo part's musical characteristics
    • simple melodies-want to work with as few elements as possible
    • devotional texts
    • tintinnabulation
    • gregory chant
    • renaissance
    • organum: parallel fourths and fifths
  81. describe cantate domino's notation
    • neumes
    • lines above neumes meant longer duration
  82. describe cantate domino's texture
    homophonic, monophonic, diaphonic, homorhythmic
  83. describe cantate domino's texts
    • latin
    • devotional christian psalm
    • text painting
  84. how does cantate domino reflect gregorian chant influences?
    • open intervals
    • pulsed, but with nonmetric feeling
    • syllabic text setting
    • conjuct melodies
    • homorhythm
  85. how does cantate domino represent russian orthodox?
    • zapevalo-solo
    • octave doubling and converges
  86. how does cantate domino represent tintinabulation?
    • bell ringing triads
    • drones and arpeggiations to imitate bells
    • diatony
    • clashing seconds
  87. how does spiritual minimalism categorized?
    absence of rhythmic complexity
  88. what is serialism?
    • rearranging pitches
    • pitches are called 12 tones
  89. who or what became proponents of serialism?
    • second vienese school
    • Pierre Bouleuz
  90. who became proponents of experimentalism?
    • john cage
    • henry cowell
    • harry partch
  91. what pieces represent experimentalism
    • Cage's prepared piano: music as noises, asian influences
    • Cowell- microtones, tone clusters
    • Partch- designed new instruments, asian influences, microtones(43 tones), percussion
  92. who were part of the Avant-Garde? and what were they?
    • John Cage
    • Henry Cowell
    • Harry Partch
    • Avant-Garde- a part of experimentalism
  93. who were proponents of electronic music?
    • Machover
    • Laurie Andersen
    • Charles Dodge
    • Varese
  94. what was machover's style of electronic music?
    hyperinstruments, infusing accoustic music with technology
  95. what was andersen's style for electronic music?
    technology driven multimedia art performances
  96. what was varese's style for electronic music?
    musique concrete
  97. what is musique concrete?
    using recorded sounds as raw material and the assembly/recoriding of unique sounds so it can be played backwards, forwards, or in any way
  98. describe newo-romanticism
    • anti mathematics
    • return to emotions, traditional harmonic forms
  99. what is the new virtuosity?
    difficult and technical music demands of the 20th and 21st century
  100. What is classism? philosophical and aesthetic views?
    • looked to grego roman antiquity for inspirations
    • aimed for balance beautiful sound
  101. list two classiciam literature writer
    • Goethe
    • Schiller
  102. List philosophers of classism
    • Locke
    • Voltaire
  103. When was the Classic period?
  104. list some of classism musical features
    • homophony
    • conjunct melodies
    • proportion and balance
  105. what is the form of classism?
    ternary and rounded binary and sonata allegro
  106. What was musical genre for classism?
    • secular music for the nobility
    • masses
    • solos
    • serious and comic operas
    • symphony develops
  107. who were part of the vienese school?
    • Mozart
    • Haydn
    • Beethoven
    • Schubert
  108. what is mehterhane?
    turkish janissary orchestra
  109. what is boru or nefir?
    turkish trumpet
  110. what is a zurna?
    double reed aerophone
  111. what is kos?
    kettledrum and ancestor of timpani
  112. what is nekkare?
    small kettle drum
  113. what is davul?
    like bass drum
  114. what is Zil or Halile?
  115. what is cevgen?
    bell rod
  116. what is caghana?
    jingly hat rod
  117. how does mehterhane translate into west europe idiom?
    • topics/plots of dramatic works
    • militaristic imagery
    • monophonic or modal melodies
    • note ornamentations
    • melodic jumps upset classical balance
  118. how were composers affected by mehterhane music?
    • alla turca pieces
    • operas with turkish scenarios
  119. what was the mannheim school of music?
    • 1740
    • in germany
    • singing melodies
    • crescendos/dynamic contrasts
    • proponent is Stamitz
  120. what is the 

    Empfindsamkeit (Empfindsam style)?
    • precursor to the romantic period
    • "true to feelings"
    • motives than melodies
    • abrupt textural shifts
    • intense emotional music
    • in north germany...1750
  121. who were proponent of Empfindsam style?
    bach, quartz, vivaldi
  122. what were the musical styles of the rococco period?
    galant style, empfindsam style, mannheim school
  123. explain the gallant style of the rococco period
    • light and bright emotions
    • regular melodies
    • homophony
    • in France
  124. who were proponents of gallant style in rococco period?
    bach, couperin, tartini
  125. when was the rococo or the pre-classical age?
  126. how does the viennese use of "turkish music" signify political significance?
    reference to ottoman wars, napoleon, military
  127. how does the viennese use of "turkish music" signifiy aesthetic signiface?
    • exoticism
    • orientalism
    • caricature- objectifying the enemy
  128. how does the vienese use of "turkish music" signify philosophical significance?
    • made european more superior
    • focus on liberty and democracy
  129. how does the viennese use of "turkish music" signify musical significance?
    • operas
    • promote military bands
    • expansion of orchestras
    • new musical styles
  130. who were janissaries?
    • bodyguards of sultans
    • military musicians
Card Set
Music 110
Final Exam