list romanticism keywords
- Exoticism (expansion/boundlessness)
- Middle Class
When was the Romantic Period?
What were some Romanticism philosophy and historical features?
- 1.ca. 1820–1900
- 2.Parallels movement in art history
- 3. Outgrowth of the revolutions
- 4. Power transferred to middle class
- 5. Importance of the individual
- 6. Personal freedom prized
- 7. Personal expression prioritized
- 8. Natural (raw) emotions eclipse intellectualism
- a. wildness of nature
- (1) era of landscape painting
- b. the picturesque
- c. the descriptive
- d. the passionate
- e. the dramatic
- 9. Exoticism
- a. boundlessness: looking to other cultures
- b. emotional flavor and picturesqueness
- 10. Symbolism, allusion, suggestion, ambiguity
- a. find return to the ornate, lush, irregular
- 11. Nationalism
- a. era of nation-state construction
- b. the soul of the nation is found in folklore
- c. folkloric subjects
- d. nature, landscape, rurality = kinship with
List some musical characteristics of Romanticism
- Art transcends life; Person and Art are one
- a. Great composers and their Masterworks
- 2. Boundlessness as expansion
- a. orchestra
- b. movements and works
- c. themes
- d. phrases
- e. tonality
- (1) chromaticism
- f. dynamics
- g. timbres, instrument combinations
- h. technical demands on performers
- (1) virtuosity
- (2) facilitated also by technological
improvements to instruments
What can best categorize Mugorsky's Picture at an Exhibition?
Russian Popularism, Realism, and Nationalism
Who visualized Mugorsky's Picture at an Exhibition?
painting by Victor Hartmann
What was the message behind Mugorsky's Picture at an Exhibition?
political agenda and supported by the "Mighty Five", which Mugorsky was involved
Who wrote Picture at an Exhibition and when?
Mussorsky and 1874
Picture at an exhibition used which type of language?
Everyday language of Russian folk songs
Who were apart of the Mighty Five or the Mighty Handful?
Mussorsky, Borodin, Cui, Rimsy-Korsakov, Balakirev
What happened during 19th Century Russia?
- 1. The Wanderer painting
- 2. artistic movement
- 3. Populists vs. Cosmopolitans
- 4. free music schools vs. expensive conservatories
Who did Rimsky-Korsakov taught?
What do the Wanderer paintings represent?
How did 19th Century Russia created a national music style?
- 1. used folk songs and instrumental tunes
- -created new harmonic and modal structures that dissolved major-minor tonality
- 2. Viewd customs, vernacular language, legends, and folk tales
- 3. Inspiration from history....like people, places, things, landscapes....to promote nationalism
Describe 19th century Russian Chorus
- 1. a capella
- 2. women sang in low voice range while men sang in high range
- 3. entrances are together than staggered
- 4. include men, women, and mixed group...mostly women now
- 5. solo begins all songs and is followed by chorus
what is Russian chorus called?
what is russian solo entrance called?
Describe the melodies of Russian chorus
- 1. songs of everyday life
- 2. in modal modes: aeolian, mixylodian, dorian, etc.
- 3. features falling fifths and fourths
- 4. irregular pulse
- 5. repetitive motives
describe 19th century russian music texture
- 1. improvised
- 2. heterophony
- 3. repetitive motives and music leaning towards tonic
when did Ravel orchestrated Picture at an exhibition?
List some of Victor Hartmann's paintings
- 1. The Jew in the fur cap
- 2. the poor jew from sandomir
- the sketches of costumes from "Trilby"
- paris catacomb
- hut of baba yaga in form of clock
- plan for a city's gate
What lead to populism?
Alexander II's educational reforms
what were some characteristics of Russian populism?
- rebelling against aristocracy
- depict art in the eyes of peasants
- revived and populized folktales and legends
Artists of the Wanderers
Repin, Ge, Surikov, Kramskoi
When was the Wanderers founded?
Why were the mighty five important?
- russian composers
- created russian school of composition
- created nationalistic musical styles
- used russian traditions and cultures for inspirations
- use of folktunes
- use of russian language
Describe the wanderers painting techniques
- photographic painting technique
- used living people
- great detail attention
who comprised of the artistic movement of literature for 19th century russia?
Tolstoy, Puskin, Lermontov, Dostoevsky
list several of Mussorsky's compositions
- Picture at an Exhibition,1874
- Night on a bald mountain, 1867
- Sunless...song cycle, 1874
- songs and Dances of death...song cycle, 1875
- the nurser...song cycle 1872
in the picture at an exhibition, what language was the promenade in and which movement?
russian and 1,3, 4, and 7
Ballet of the unhatched chicks in picture at an exhibition was which movement and in what language?
8 and french
the bogatyrs gate was which movement of PX, represents which ancient capitol city, and in what language?
- 14th movement
- city of Kiev
- language is Russian
the hut on hen's legs is which movement of PX and what language?
- 13th movement
- Russian language
how is PX romantic?
- tone poem
- programmatic music-tells story of Mussorskys visit to art museum
- melodies changes moods often
- exotic subjects like Baba yaga, catacombs, from other lands
- used 6 different languages
how is PX nationalistic?
- use of folklore
- inspirations from history: Kiev
- created new compositional style
how does PE represents populist realism?
- self portrait of living people
- folkloric and historical people
- social connections to paintings
- used asian and other non western music influences
- close boundaries of sound and noise
- created microtones
what were some of the major 20th century music trends?
serialism, experimentalism, electronic music, neo-romanticism, minimalism, post-minimalism, spirit minimalism
list some of John cage childhood
- went to Pomona college
- studied under Cowell and influenced by Schoenberg
what was the composition style characteristics of John Cage?
Asian influences from Indonesia and China
Tell two things about I Ching(Book of Changes)
- inspired by China
- composed by John Cage
Who created 4'33"?
John Cage to close gap between noise and sound
Who wrote Prepared Piano? What year? Styles?
- John Cage, 1938
- inspired by Javanese Gamelan....sounds very rhythmic
- objects were inserted between key strings of piano
Why did John Cage became fascinated with gamelan?
- interlocking rhythms and melodies
Who composed Sonatas and Interludes, Sonata V? When?
John Cage, 1946
Describe Sonatas and Interludes, Sonata V by John Cage, 1946
- 16 sonatas divided into 4 groups of 4
- grand piano keys were adjusted with objects in between key strings to emulate gamelan
- binary form
- chromaticism...stepwise melody
- sounds percussive
list 4 things about the origins of minimalism
- US movement
- originally an art movement
- *abstract modernism*
- simple geometric shapes
- no extreme contrasts
- subtle variation
Describe minimalism music composition style
- largely tonal
- repetitive motives, fragments, rhythms
- gradual or subtle musical transformation
- accentuate pulse
who was the originator of minimalism?
la monte young
who were the five minimalist composers?
- la monte young
- john adams
which two composers were post-minimalists?
reich and adams
describe hindustani classical music
- modes depended on mood/daytime: Rag or Raga
- repetitive rhythmic cycle
which countries inspired La monte young? which compositional style does he prefer?
- hindustani and japan
- prefers drones, hums, sustained sounds
which countries inspired Riley? which compositional style does he prefer?
- hindustani and jazz improvisations
- influenced by la monte young
who were classmates learning under Pran Nath?
Riley and young
who wrote In C? when?
which countries influenced Glass?
Hindustani, middle east
glass worked for whom during his career?
who composed Floe from glassworks?
Describe Glass's musical style
- constant pulse
- "structural music"
- focus on harmonic changes
Explain Balinese gamelan
- interlocking of parts
- driving pulse
- rhythmic cycle
explain javanese gamelan
- driving pulse
- instrument tune in pairs
- quick changes in tempos
- abrupt stops and starts
- more metallic sounds
describe african musical characteristics
- repetitive patterns
- driving meter
Where did Glass get his inspiration from? Steve Reich? Riley?
- Glass: Hindustani, Himalayas, Middle East
- Reich: Balinese and Africa
- Riley: Hindustani and Jazz
describe reich's musical style
- focus on accoustic instruments
what were some of reichs pieces?
- music for pieces of wood
- six marimbas
- electric counterpoint
- city life
what inspired reich's electric counterpoint?
transcending coventional time and space
what promoted globalization?
- products "trafficking"
- mass media
- multiple identities/ communities
who influenced john adams?
reich and cage
who composed the doctor atomic?
which topics does john adams usually compose for?
contemporary controversial topic
describe john adams musical style
- more lush harmonies and melodies
list some of john adams works
- doctor atomic
- death of klinghoffer
- nixon in china
- the chairman dances
- shaker loops
- chamber symphony
when was doctor atomic written?
who was a proponent of spiritual minimalism?
describe spiritual minimalism
- a european movement
- inspirations from sacred texts
- modal or tonal
- metered or unpulsed
what is tintinabulation?
describe arvo part's musical characteristics
- simple melodies-want to work with as few elements as possible
- devotional texts
- gregory chant
- organum: parallel fourths and fifths
describe cantate domino's notation
- lines above neumes meant longer duration
describe cantate domino's texture
homophonic, monophonic, diaphonic, homorhythmic
describe cantate domino's texts
- devotional christian psalm
- text painting
how does cantate domino reflect gregorian chant influences?
- open intervals
- pulsed, but with nonmetric feeling
- syllabic text setting
- conjuct melodies
how does cantate domino represent russian orthodox?
- octave doubling and converges
how does cantate domino represent tintinabulation?
- bell ringing triads
- drones and arpeggiations to imitate bells
- clashing seconds
how does spiritual minimalism categorized?
absence of rhythmic complexity
what is serialism?
- rearranging pitches
- pitches are called 12 tones
who or what became proponents of serialism?
- second vienese school
- Pierre Bouleuz
who became proponents of experimentalism?
- john cage
- henry cowell
- harry partch
what pieces represent experimentalism
- Cage's prepared piano: music as noises, asian influences
- Cowell- microtones, tone clusters
- Partch- designed new instruments, asian influences, microtones(43 tones), percussion
who were part of the Avant-Garde? and what were they?
- John Cage
- Henry Cowell
- Harry Partch
- Avant-Garde- a part of experimentalism
who were proponents of electronic music?
- Laurie Andersen
- Charles Dodge
what was machover's style of electronic music?
hyperinstruments, infusing accoustic music with technology
what was andersen's style for electronic music?
technology driven multimedia art performances
what was varese's style for electronic music?
what is musique concrete?
using recorded sounds as raw material and the assembly/recoriding of unique sounds so it can be played backwards, forwards, or in any way
- anti mathematics
- return to emotions, traditional harmonic forms
what is the new virtuosity?
difficult and technical music demands of the 20th and 21st century
What is classism? philosophical and aesthetic views?
- looked to grego roman antiquity for inspirations
- aimed for balance beautiful sound
list two classiciam literature writer
List philosophers of classism
When was the Classic period?
list some of classism musical features
- conjunct melodies
- proportion and balance
what is the form of classism?
ternary and rounded binary and sonata allegro
What was musical genre for classism?
- secular music for the nobility
- serious and comic operas
- symphony develops
who were part of the vienese school?
what is mehterhane?
turkish janissary orchestra
what is boru or nefir?
what is a zurna?
double reed aerophone
what is kos?
kettledrum and ancestor of timpani
what is nekkare?
small kettle drum
what is davul?
like bass drum
what is Zil or Halile?
what is caghana?
jingly hat rod
how does mehterhane translate into west europe idiom?
- topics/plots of dramatic works
- militaristic imagery
- monophonic or modal melodies
- note ornamentations
- melodic jumps upset classical balance
how were composers affected by mehterhane music?
- alla turca pieces
- operas with turkish scenarios
what was the mannheim school of music?
- in germany
- singing melodies
- crescendos/dynamic contrasts
- proponent is Stamitz
what is the
Empfindsamkeit (Empfindsam style)?
- precursor to the romantic period
- "true to feelings"
- motives than melodies
- abrupt textural shifts
- intense emotional music
- in north germany...1750
who were proponent of Empfindsam style?
bach, quartz, vivaldi
what were the musical styles of the rococco period?
galant style, empfindsam style, mannheim school
explain the gallant style of the rococco period
- light and bright emotions
- regular melodies
- in France
who were proponents of gallant style in rococco period?
bach, couperin, tartini
when was the rococo or the pre-classical age?
how does the viennese use of "turkish music" signify political significance?
reference to ottoman wars, napoleon, military
how does the viennese use of "turkish music" signifiy aesthetic signiface?
- caricature- objectifying the enemy
how does the vienese use of "turkish music" signify philosophical significance?
- made european more superior
- focus on liberty and democracy
how does the viennese use of "turkish music" signify musical significance?
- promote military bands
- expansion of orchestras
- new musical styles
who were janissaries?
- bodyguards of sultans
- military musicians