Sociology Final

  1. Family
    Nuclear Family
    • Soc. institution binding people together through blood, marriage, law/social norms.
    • Husband, wife, immediate family
    • 3+ generations
  2. Patriarchal
    • Male dominated
    • Female dominated
    • Traced through fathers lineage
    • Traced through mothers lineage
  3. Monogamy
    Serial Monogamy
    • 1 husband, 1 wife
    • 2+ successive spouses
    • multiple spouses at one time
    • 1 husband, multiple wives at one time
    • 1 wife, multiple husbands at one time
  4. Functionalist view on Family
    • Regulate sexual behavior- only after marriage
    • Replace members of society who die
    • Socialize young
    • Provide care and emotional support
    • Conferring social status- race, class, ect
  5. Conflict view on Family
    • Passes on privilege and disadvantage perpetuating social inequality - race and class
    • Unequal division of labor and power
    • Productive- produce food, clothing, shelter.
    • Reproductive- bearing children, caregiving, managing household, education children.
  6. Trends Over Time
  7. Education
    Informal Education
    Formal Education
    • Experience that train, discipline, and share the mental and physical potentials of the maturing person.
    • Ed occurring in spontaneous unplanned way. (streetwise)
    • Systematic, purposeful, planned effort intended to impact specific skills and modes of thought.
  8. Functionalist view on Ed.
    • Transmitting Skills- train next generation
    • Facilitating personal reflection and change - allows children to think beyond family
    • Contributing basic and applied research- increase knowledge
    • Integrating diverse population- "americanize" learn to tolerate different groups.
    • Screening and selecting- channels best skilled into most desirable and important occupations.
    • Solving social problems- education based programs to solve issues (child obesity, crime, disease)
    • Other functions- babysitters.
  9. Conflict View on Education
    • School systems allow for more powerful to exert their will over those with less power.
    • More illiterate in ghettos than in other places (cant read street signs) basic things
    • IQ test and SAT is bias- weave out those in low status.
  10. Demography
    • Study of human populations, especially their size and rate growth.
    • Study- fertility, morality, migration
  11. Population Structure
    Pop. Pyramids show the age/gender composition of a population.
  12. Expansive Structure
    Broadest at the base, showing a young population, increasing in size.

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  13. Constrictive Structure
    Narrower at the base with a bulge in the middle showing more middle aged people.

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  14. Stationary Structure
    All age cohorts roughly the same size.

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  15. Demographic Transition
    • Used to describe the ratio of births to deaths in the industrializing countries since the 19th century.
    • Stage 1- high birth and death rates
    • Stage 2- transition stage, death rates decline
    • Stage 3- low death rates, declining birth rates
  16. Demographic Transition Theory
    • Malthus- too many people for the amount of food the earth can produce
    • Positive checks on population growth- events that increase mortality (war, famine, disease)
  17. Migration/Immigration
    Internal and International Migration
    • Changing households within the boundaries of a single country (in-migration, out-migration)
    • Movement of people between countries (immigration, emigration)
  18. Why Migrate?
    • Push factors- conditions that encourage people to move out of an area. Political conflict and bad schools
    • Pull factors- conditions that encourage people to move into a particular area. Family ties and a new job.
  19. Urbanization
    • Process by which population becomes concentrated in urban areas
    • Resulting in corresponding changes in land use, social interaction and economic activity.
    • Megacity- an urban agglomeration with 8 million people or more.
  20. Theories of Urbanization
    Urban Ecology
    • The founding of cities and distribution of neighborhoods like that of ecology in the physical sciences where organisms are distributed systematically so balance is achieved.
    • Cities develop because of advantageous features of the environment (rive, railroad, etc)
    • Cities become ordered by process of competition, invasion and succession.
  21. Theories of Urbanization
    Chicago School
    • Drake and Cayton- black neighborhoods in Chicago not natural, but rather result of unnatural, social forces.
    • Conflict perspective
    • Restrictive covenants- specific rules within a neighborhood
  22. Theories of Urbanization
    Social Isolation
    Exposure to Choice
    • Wirth- Urban interaction problem. the cold reserve personality is a necessity for city people to respect social boundaries when so many people are in a small place.
    • Says hi talks to everyone
    • Fisher- urban living promotes diverse subcultures not possible in small towns (religious, ethnic, political or other)
    • More choice of churches/temple
  23. Gentrification
    • The renovation of inner city neighborhoods by high-income dwellers punctuation.
    • Effects on Cities:
    • --Poor residents enable to afford old neighborhoods
    • --Little interaction between old and new residents.
  24. Cities and Globalization
    • No need for cities? Globalization of industry and e-commerce
    • Global cities emerge- urban centers home to headquarters of large, transnational corporations and an abundance of finalcial technological and consulting services.
  25. Economic System
    • Social institution that coordinates human activities to produce,
    • distribute, and consume goods and services.
    • Any product extracted from the earth, manufactures or grown.
    • Activities performed for others that result in no tangible product.
  26. Agricultural Revolutions
    • Hunting and gathering- domestication of animals and plants. (10,000+ years ago)
    • Scratch plow (5000 BC)- food surplus= nonfood occupations (potters, weavers, musicians)
    • Irrigation systems, windmill, tractor, pesticides, genetic engineering.
  27. Industrial Revolution
    • Mechanization as a fundamental feature.
    • --Addition of external sources of power, such as oil or coal, to hand tools and modes of transportation.
    • Colonization also important feature
    • --Form of domination in which one country imposes its political, economic, social, and cultural institutions on an indigenous population and the land it occupies
  28. Major Economic Systems
    • Capitalism- raw materials and means of producing and distributing goods and services are privately owned.
    • --- Profit driven, free of government interference, consumer driven.
    • Socialism- raw materials and means of producing and distributing goods and services are collectively owned.
  29. Political Systems
    • Institution that regulates the use of and access to power that is essential to articulating and realizing individual, local, regional, national, international, and global interests and agendas.
    • People in high positions can only have their positions if people at the bottom agree.
  30. Power and Authority
    • Authority: legitimatepower (just, proper)
    • Traditional: relies on sanctity of time-honored norms that govern the selection of someone to a powerful position (chief, king, queen) & specify responsibilities and appropriate conduct for the individual selected
    • Charismatic: drives from exceptional & exemplary qualities of the person who issues the commands
    • Legal-rational: rests on system of impersonal rules that formally specifies the qualifications for occupying a powerful position
  31. Forms of Government- Democracy
    Power vested in citizen body, and citizen body participate directly in decision making process.
  32. Forms of Government- Totalitarianism
    • 1) single ruling party lead by a dictator
    • 2) an unchallenged official ideology that defines a vision of the perfect society and the means to achieve that vision
    • 3) a system of social control that suppresses dissent and opposition
    • 4) centralized control over the media and the economy
  33. Forms of Government- Authoritarianism
    No separation of power and a single person (dictator), group (family, military) or social class holds all power
  34. Forms of Government- Theocracy
    Political authority rests in the hands of religious leaders or a theologically trained elite; no separation of church and state.
  35. Deviance
    Any behavior/appearance that is socially challenged because it departs from norms.
  36. Norms
    Written and unwritten rules specifying appropriate and inappropriate behavior
  37. Crime
    • Deviance that breaks the law
    • punished by formal sanctions
  38. Social Control
    • Methods used to get people to comply with norms.
    • Sanctions
    • --Positive-football players dressing as cheerleaders
    • --Negative- getting a traffic ticket
    • --Formal- going to deans office for being in trouble
    • --Informal- stopped for speeding but just getting a warning
  39. Theoretical Perspectives
    • Functionalist
    • Strain Theory
    • Interactionist
    • Labeling Theory
    • Conflict
  40. Theoretical Perspectives- Functionalist
    • Durkheim
    • Functions of Deviance:
    • 1) Adaptive- introduce new ideas
    • 2) Boundary maintenance- keeps in check norms of society, group solidarity.
  41. Theoretical Perspectives- Stain Theory
    • Merton
    • 1) Valued goals have unclear limits
    • 2) People are unsure whether means exist to reach goals
    • 3) Opportunities to meet goals closed to some
    • Strain between goals and means lead to:
    • Criticize self for not meeting goal when they do no have equal access to opportunity
    • Lower strata individuals compare selves to those at top
    • Pressure for ambition to highest goals
  42. Strain Theory
    • Conformity- go to office everyday to earn money
    • Innovation- get created to get the goal done- not a legitimate way (Al Capone)
    • Ritualism- give up on cultural goals- still conform just not in their mind (office space)
    • Retreatism- drug abusers that become homeless dont want to work 9-5 everyday- given up on the system
    • Rebellion- reject norms and cultural norms but they want to change culture (rosa parks)
  43. Theoretical Perspectives- Interactionalist
    • Deviance socially constructed through interaction between people or groups.
    • DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY –some social environments teach deviant activities.
  44. Theoretical Perspectives- Labeling Theory
    • Moral entrepreneurs not only create rules but hey also enforce them. --Moral crusaders, Rule creators and enforcers, Outsiders
    • Four categories of people-- conformists, pure deviants, secret deviants, falsely accused.
  45. Theoretical Perspectives- Conflict Perspecive
    • Individuals choose to engage in deviance in response to inequalities of capitalist system or to challenge the social order.
    • Laws are tools used by powerful to maintain own privilege
    • criminal justice system favors whites, upper class
    • Social reality of crime
  46. Religion
    Religion encompasses those human responses that give meaning to the ultimate and inescapable problems of existence birth, death, illness, aging, injustice, tragedy, and suffering
  47. Sociologist are concerned and not concerned with?
    • Not concerned with:
    • –Whether God or supernatural exists
    • –Whether beliefs are valid
    • –Whether one is better than another
    • Concerned with:
    • –Aspects of religion (commonality?)
    • –Functions vs. Dysfunctions
    • –Conflict within/between groups
    • –Way it shapes behaviors and understandings
    • –Way it is intertwined with soc, econ, pol issues
  48. Cultural Relativism
    • Durkheim
    • Muslim women wearing hijab
    • American women wearing makeup and clothes for male gaze.
  49. Durkheim's Ideas
    • Sacred- everything that is regarded as extraordinary and that inspires in believers deep and absorbing sentiments of awe, respect, mystery, and reverence.
    • Profane- everything else: unholy, ordinary commonplace
  50. Types of Religion- Sacramental
    Sacred is sought in places, objects and actions believed to house a god or spirit.
  51. Types of Religion- Prophetic
    Sacred revolves around items that symbolize significant historical events or around the lives, teachings and writings of great people
  52. Types of Religion- Mystical
    Sacred is sought in states of being that, at their peak, can exclude all awareness of ones existence, sensations, thoughts and surroundings.
  53. Types of Religion- Rituals
    • Rules that people must behave in the presence of the sacred to achieve an acceptable state of being.
    • Attending church on sunday
    • Durkheim- didn't matter why people worshiped different things but how they do it would be different.
  54. Functionalist Perspective
    • Serves vital social functions for individual and group:
    • 1) facing uncertainty
    • 2) believing- helps outcome
    • 3) promote unity and solidarity
    • Bad luck god it just testing us
  55. Conflict Perspective
    • People use religion to repress, constrain and exploit others.
    • Bunch of BS- people at the top construct for people at the bottom.
  56. The Devils Playground
    • Functionalist- listening to god and doing the things they do for him. Rum- shows them whats out there teaching them what god wants.
    • Conflict- repressive, constrains them
  57. Social Change
    Any significant alteration, modification, or transformation in the organization and operation of social life.
  58. Oppositional Culture
    collective behavior aimed to be expressive of resistance or dissatisfaction
  59. Social Movement
    Situation in which a substantial number of people organize to make a change, resist a change, or undo a change in some area of society
  60. Social Movements- Regressive or Reactionary Movements
    SM that seek to turn back the hands of time to an earlier condition or state of being on sometimes considered a "golden era"
  61. Social Movements- Reformist
    • SM that target a specific feature of a society as needing change.
    • Only wanna change an aspect
  62. Social Movement- Revolutionary
    SM that seek broad, sweeping and radical structural changes to a society basic social institutions or to the world order.
  63. SM- Counterrevolutionary
    SM that seek to maintain a social order that reformist and revolutionary movements are seeking to change.
Card Set
Sociology Final