AP Bio 16

  1. Transformation
    Defined as the change in genotype and phenotype due  to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
  2. bacteriophages or phages for short
     viruses that infected bacteria
  3.  virus
     is little more than DNA were sometimes are in an enclosed in a protective coat which is often simply proteins.
  4. Origins of replication
     The replication of a DNA molecule begins at particular sites called origins of replication, short stretches of DNA have a specific sequence of nucleotides
  5.  replication fork
     a Y-shaped region where the parental strands of DNA are being unwound
  6.  Helicases
     are in signs that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the 2 parental strands and making them available as template strands.
  7.  Single-strand binding proteins
     after the parental strands separate single-strand binding proteins bind to the on payer DNA strands, keeping them from reforming.
  8. Topoisomerase
     the arm twisting of the double helix causes tighter twisting and strain ahead of the replication fork. This enzyme helps relieve the strain by breaking, swiveling, and rejoining DNA strands. 
  9. Primase
     the initial nuclear tide chain that is produced during DNA synthase is actually a short stretch of RNA, not being a. This RNA chain is called a primer and is synthesized by this enzyme.
  10.  DNA polymerase
     catalyzes the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to be pre-existing chain.
  11.  Leading strand
     along one template strand, DNA polymerase can sympathize a complementary strand continuously by you longing the new DNA in the mandatory 5' to 3' direction. DNA: race 3 remains in the replication fork on the template strand and continuously adds nucleotides to the new complementary strand as the fork progresses. Only a one in a primary is required for DNA glimmerings 3 to synthesize the leading strand
  12.  lagging strand
     to eat elongated the other new strand of DNA and the mandatory 5' to 3' direction, DNA polymerase must work along with the other template strand in the direction away from the replication fork. In contrast to the leading strand, which elongates continuously, the lagging strand is synthesized this continuously, as a series of segments.
  13.  Okazaki fragments
     the segments of the lagging strand are called Okazaki fragments., After the Japanese scientist who discovered them. Whereas only 1 primers required on the meaning strand, each of the sake fragments on the lagging strand must be primed separately.
  14. Mismatch repair
    in mismatch repair, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nuclear tides that have resulted from replication errors.
Card Set
AP Bio 16
AP Bio 16