AP Bio 10

  1.  Autrotrophs
     Our self feeders; they sustain themselves with out eating anything derived from other living beings.
  2. Heterotrophs
     Of retained their organic material by the 2nd major mode of nutrition. Unable to make their own food, they live on compounds produced by other organisms
  3. mesophyll
     where chloroplasts are found mainly in the cells. This is the tissue in the interior of the leaf.
  4. stomata
     art microscopic pores that carbon dioxide enters the lease and oxygen exits the room
  5.  stroma
     but chloroplasts has an envelope of 2 membranes surrounding against fluid called the stroma.
  6. thylakoids
     suspended within the stroma is a 3rd membrane system which said her grades the stroma from the thylakoid space inside these sacs. in some places, file accord facts are segregated into columns called grana.
  7. chlorophyll
    the green pigment that gives leaves their color, resides in the file accorded membranes of the chloroplast. It is the light energy absorbed by the chlorophyll that drives the synthesis of organic molecules in the chloroplast
  8. Light reaction
     the light reactions are the steps of photosynthesis that converts solar energy to chemical energy. Water is split, providing a source of electrons and protons and giving off oxygen as a byproduct. Light absorbed by chlorophyll drives transfer of the electrons and hydrogen ions from watered to and except are called NADP+, where they are temporarily stored. The light reaction uses solar power to reduce NADP+ to NADPH by adding a pair of electrons along with a hydrogen ion.
  9.  wavelength
     the distance between the crest of electromagnetic waves
  10.  photosystem
     a photo system is composed of a reaction center complex surrounded by several light harvesting complexes.
  11.  Reaction center complex
     is an organized Association of proteins holding a special pair of chlorophyll a molecules
  12.  light harvesting complex
     consists of various pigment molecules which may include chlorophyll a, chlorophyll B and carotenoids bound to proteins
  13. primary electronics  acceptor
    when a pigment molecule absorbs a photon, the energy is transferred from pigment molecules to pigment molecules within a light harvesting complex until it passed into the reaction center complex. The reaction center complex also contains a molecule capable of excepting electrons in becoming reduced Called the primary electron acceptor
  14.  linear electron flow
     energy transformation is a flow of electrons through the photos system and other molecular components built into the by liquid membrane. This is called the linear electron flow, and it occurs during the light reaction of photosynthesis is.
  15.  cyclic electron flow
     in certain cases, photo excited electrons can take an alternate path called cyclic electron flow, which uses  photos system 1 but not photosystem to. The electrons cycle back from Fd to the cytochrome complex and former there continue on to the P700 core fill in the photosystem 1 reaction complex. There is no production of NADPH and no release of oxygen but it does generate ATP.
  16. C3 plants
     In most plants and initial fixation of carbon occurs at the Rubin skill, the Calvin cycle that adds carbon dioxide to rival ribulose diphosphate. These plants are called this because the 1st organic product of carbon fixation is a 3 carbon compounds.
  17.  Photorespiration
     as carbon dioxide becomes scarce within the airspace of the leaf, Rubin skill adds oxygen to the Calvin cycle instead of carbon dioxide. The products splits, and the 2 carbon compound leaves the chloroplast. Paroxysmal owns and mitochondria rearrange and split this compound, releasing carbon dioxide. This process is called photo respiration because it occurs in the light and consumes oxygen while producing CO2 it does not however produce ATP in fact it consumes ATP.
  18. C4 plants
     Are so named because they pray face the Calvin cycle with an alternate mode of carbon fixation that forms a 4 card in the compound as its 1st product. This reaction is separated by space
  19. CAM plants
    the mesophyll cells of these plants store the organic acid they make during the night in their vacuoles until morning, when the stomata close.
Card Set
AP Bio 10
AP Bio 10