carbohydrates, protiens, and nucleic acids are all huge and in this catorgory.
is a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked covalently
the repaeting units that polymers as made out of
specialized marcomoleclue taht speeds up chemical reactions
Monomers are connected by your reaction in which 2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other with the loss of a water molecule
a process that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction. Hydrolysis means to break using water.
include both the sugars and polymers of sugars. The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharides or simple sugars.
generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit CH2O.
consists of 2 monosaccharides joined by a glycoside linkage, a covalent bond formed between 2 monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by like a sidekick linkages. Some polysaccharides serve as storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells.
plants store starch, polymer of glucose monomers,
is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells
are grouped together because they share one important trait: they mix poorly, if at all, with water. The hydrophobic behavior of lipids is based on their molecular structure.
is constructed from 2 kinds of smaller molecules: gycerol and fatty acids
has a long carbon skeleton, usually 16 or 18 carbon atoms in length
saturated fatty acid
if there are no double bonds between carbon atoms composing a chain, then as many hydrogen atoms as possible are bonded to the carbon skeleton. Such a structure is to be saturated with hydrogen, and the resulting fatty acid therefore called a saturated fatty acid
unsaturated fatty acid
has one or more double bonds, with one if you were a hydrogen atom on each double bonded carbon.
are essential for cells because they make up cell membranes. Their structure provides a classic example of how former states function at the molecular level
are lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings
is a crucial molecule in animals. It is a common component of animal cell membranes and is also the precursor from which others steroids are synthesized
chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction.
polymers of amino acids. When 2 amino acids are positioned so that the carboxyl group of 1 is adjacent to the amino group of the other, they can become joined by a dehydration reaction, with the removal of a water molecule
is a biological functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure
is an organic molecule possessing both a amino group and a carboxyl group. At the center of the amino acid it is an asymmetric carbon atom called the alpha carbon.
also called the side chain, differs with each amino acid. The physicochemical properties of the side chain determines the unique characteristic of a particular amino acid, thus affecting its functional role as a polypeptide.
primary structure of proteins
the primary structure of a protein is a linked series of amino acids with a unique sequence. The primary structure dictates secondary and tertiary structure, due to the chemical nature of the backbone and side chains of the amino acid position along the chain
these coils and folds are the result of hydrogen bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone
a delicate coil held together by hydrogen bonding between every 4th amino acid is one secondary structure
is the overall shape of a polypeptide resulting from interactions between the side chains or are groups of the various amino acids
formalwear to cytosine monomers, which have sulfhydryl groups (-SH) on their side chains are brought close together by the folding of the protein
is the overall proteins structure that results from the arrangement of these polypeptide subunits
are crucial to the folding process, proteins are molecules that assist in the proper folding of other proteins. They keep the new polypeptide segregated in the saddle plasmatic environment while it folds spontaneously
nucleic acid are macromolecules that exist as polymers
is composed of 3 parts; a nitrogenous base, a 5 carbon sugar, and 1 or more phosphate groups
has won its 6 member Lena of carbon and nitrogen atoms. The members of the family are cytosine, T, and U.
larger, with the six-member ring fused to a five-member ring. These consist of adenine and guanine.