psych chapter 7

  1. the process by which we recollect prior experiences and information and skills learned in the past
  2. a memory of a specific event, the event happened in the person's presence, or the person experienced the event.
     - what you had for dinner last night
    episodic memory
  3. clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events
    flashbulb memories
  4. general knowledge people remember 
     - we know george washington was the first president
     - we don't remember when we learned it
    semantic memory 
  5. a memory of specific information
    explicit memory
  6. a memory that consists of the skills and procedures one has learned
     - throwing a ball
     - even if you do not use the skill for a long time, the skill is unforgettable 
    implicit memory
  7. the translation of information into a form in which it can be stored
    FIRST process of memory
  8. the second process of memory, is the maintenance of encoded information over a period of time
  9. repeating information over and over again to keep from forgetting it
    maintenance rehearsal
  10. making information meaningful by relating it to information you already know well
    elaborative rehearsal
  11. the third memory process consisting of locating stored information and returning it to conscious thought
  12. the memories that came back to you in that place
    context-dependent memories
  13. memories that are retrieved because the mood in which they were originally encoded is re-created
    state-dependent memories
  14. the belief that a piece of information is stored in our memory although we can not retrieve it easily
    tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
  15. the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
    - feel the cold breeze
    sensory memory
  16. the sensory register that briefly holds mental images of mental stiuli
    iconic memory
  17. the ability to remember visual stimuli over long periods of time 
    eidetic imagery 
  18. mental traces of sound
    - easier to remember sound
    echoic memory
  19. memory that hold information briefly before it is stored or forgotten
    short-term memory
  20. the tendency to recall the initial items in a series of items
    primary effect
  21. the tendency to recall the last items in a series
    recency effect
  22. the organization of items into familiar or manageable units that are easy to remember
  23. occurs when new information appears in short-term memory and takes the place of what is already there
    - practice
    - tv
    - work
  24. the type or stage of memory capable of large and relatively permanent storage
    long-term memory
  25. the mental representations that we form of the world by organizing bits of information into knowledge

    hour glass/ eye glasses
  26. involves identifying objects or events that have been encountered before
    - multiple choice vs short answer
    - understanding the answer 
  27. bring it back to mind
    - reconstruction 
    - learning things in a different language
  28. learning material a second time, usually in less time than it was originally learned
    - rereading the textbook before a test
  29. the fading away of a memory
  30. the inability to remember events that occurred during one's early years
    Hippocampus- part of the brain involved in memory formation does not fully mature until we are 3
    infantile amnesia
  31. memory loss from trauma that prevents a person from forming new memories
    - forward
    anterograde amnesia
  32. when people forget the period leading up to a traumatic event
    - backward
    retrograde amnesia
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psych chapter 7