Dendro Week 11

  1. Cone
  2. an aggregation of sporangia-bearing structures at the tip of a stem; best restricted to the conifers among seed plants
  3. Cone Scale
     part of the conifer cone that bears ovules
  4. Apophysis
    the part of the cone scale that is exposed when the cone is closed
  5. Umbo
    a protuberance, as on the apophysis of a cone scale
  6. an apparent whorl of secondary  branches in pines; considered ‘false’ because the actual arrangement is a tight spiral
    False whorl
  7. True or False
    Every ton of paper recovered saves 6.3 cubic yards of land fill space
    False 3.3 cubic yards
  8. True or False
    More than 33% of the fiber used to make new paper products in the U.S. comes from recycled sources
  9. True or false
    By 2012 the paper industry hoped to recover 55% of all paper Americans consume 
  10. Hard pines belong to what subgenus?
  11. FGS
    Needles: generally 3-10”, 3, 2 and 3, or 4 and 5 per fascicle on the same tree, dark gray-green to yellow-green, flexible, persisting 2-7 years; turpentine to citrus odor when crushed
    Cones: ovoid, 2-6”, short-stalked, stout, outward-pointing prickle 
    Bark: brown to black, deeply furrowed on vigorous or young trees; yellowish-brown to cinnamon-red, large, flat superficially scaly plates with irregular fissures on slower growing and older trunks, vanilla odor

    Range: western; one of most widely distributed pines in N. America; sea level to 9900’; found in commercial quantities in every state west of the Great Plains
    Most important pine in western N. America
    Furnishes more timber than any other pine species
    Second only to Douglas fir in lumber production
    Habit: large tree, commonly 150-180’, 3-4’dbh 
    • Pinaceae Pinus Ponderosa 
    • Ponderosa Pine
  12. FGS
    Needles: generally 5-10”, 3/fascicle, or 2 and 3 on the same tree, long, twisted, stout, gray-green, persisting 6-9 years; pineapple odor when crushed
    Cones: ovoid, 5-10”, short-stalked; umbro with long, reflexed or incurved prickle 
    Bark: like that of ponderosa pine, but darker cinnamon-red and commonly tinged with lavender or purple on old trunks
    Range: higher elevations from southwestern OR, primarily in CA, into northern Mexico; tolerates extremes of cold and dry
    Habit: commonly 90-100’, 3-5’ dbh
    Timber characteristics almost identical to those of ponderosa
    Readily hybridizes with ponderosa
    • Pinaceae Pinus jeffreyi
    • Jeffrey Pine
  13. FGS
    Needles: 0.75-3”, 2/fascicle or rarely solitary, stout, often twisted, dark green to yellow-green, persisting 3-8 years
    Cones: ovoid, 0.75-2.25”, often asymmetrical at the base; sessile; umbro with small, recurved, slender prickle; usually serotinous and persistent 
    Bark: coastal trees .75-1” thick, deeply furrowed, transversely fissured, reddish-brown to black, superficially scaly; ca .25” thick on mountain trees, orange-brown to gray, covered by thin, loosely appressed scales
    Cosmopolitan tree of wide distribution through western N. America
    Broadest ecological amplitude of any conifer in N. America
    Range: primarily Yukon, BC, Alberta, WA, OR, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO and CA
    Habit: 4 varieties, two of which collectively known as ‘shore pine’, smaller 25-30’, 12-18”dia.; inland varieties, ‘lodgepole’, medium-sized 70-80’, 15-30”dia., 1300-11,500’ elevation
    The inland, primarily Rocky Mtn. lodgepole, primary souce of commercial timber
    • Pinaceae Pinus contorta
    • Lodgepole Pine
  14. FGS
    Needles: 0.75-2”, primarily 2/fascicle; stout, rigid, often twisted; flat or concave; divergent; yellow-green, persisting 2-3 years
    Cones: oblong-conic, 1-2.25”, short stalked; light brown, usually pointed forward, often strongly incurved, mostly unarmed; serotinous, persistent
    Bark: thin, brown slightly tinged with red or dark gray; irregularly divided into scaly ridges

    Range: best growth north and west of Lake Superior; extends into northern NE and Lake States; also furthest north of any N. American pine
    Habit: 70-80’, 12-15” dia, usually smaller; irregular crown, poor ‘self-pruner’
    Fast growth, fire-adapted
    Important pulpwood species
    • Pinaceae Pinus banksiana
    • Jack Pine
  15. FGS

    Range: eastern, generally PA, NJ ranging to northern AL, GA, 50-2800’ elevation
    Habit: usually small, ‘scruffy’ tree to 40’ and 12” dia.; poor ‘self-pruner’
    Pioneer species, intolerant, variety of soils
    Important pulpwood species
    • Pinaceae Pinus virginiana
    • Virginia Pine
  16. FGS
    Needles: 2/fascicle; 4-6.25”, yellow-green, slender, brittle and breaking cleanly when doubled between the fingers; persisting 3-4 years
    Cones: Ovoid-conic, 1.50-2.4”, short-stalked, umbo unarmed
    Bark: flaky, orange-red on young trees, eventually breaking up into large, flat, reddish-brown, superficially scaly plates irregularly diamond-shaped in outline
    Range: SW Ontario, NE MN, N. WI, MI; NE Canada, New England, NY, PA, northern NJ and higher elevations in WVA
    Habit: one of most distinctive of northern conifers; symmetrical oval crown with tufted dark green foliage; well-formed bole; generally 50-80’, 2-3’ dia.
    Reasonably fast grower; important timber tree
    • Pinaceae Pinus resinosa
    • Red Pine
  17. FGS
    Needles: mostly in 2’s, but also in 3’s per fascicle on same tree; 2.75-4.75”, long slender, flexible; dark yellow-green; epicormic sprouting not uncommon
    Cones: Narrowly oblong, 1.5-2.5”, short-stalked, umbo with small, sharp, slender prickle; persistent
    Bark: nearly black, roughly scaly on young trees; often dotted with small depressions called resin ducts or blisters; later reddish-brown irregular flat plates
    Range: SE, elevation sea level to 2300’; NJ, PA to MS, west to E.TX, OK and MO
    Habit: medium-sized tree 80-100’, 2-3’ dia.; clear, well-formed bole, narrowly pyramidal crown; trees up to 8-10 years old can re-sprout; terminal shoots multinodal; readily hybridizes
    Used for lumber, plywood, pulp
    • Pinaceae Pinus echinata
    • Shortleaf Pine
  18. FGS
    Needles: 3(4)/fascicle; 3-6”, yellow-green, twisted, rigid; almost right angle to twig; often epicormic branching along trunk
    Cones: Ovoid, 1.25-2.75”, nearly sessile; umbro with slender prickle; persistent for many years; sometimes serotinous
    Bark: dark and scaly, becoming 1-2” thick at base of old trees, and smoother w/brownish-yellow, flat plates, separated by narrow, irregular
    Range: Primarily north central NC, AL north into New England
    Habit: variable, from 8-12’ in NJ pine plains, to 50-60’ and 1-2’ dia. on better sites; can grow rapidly; fire-adapted; serotinous in NJ pine barrens
    Uses: construction lumber, pulp, railroad ties, naval stores
    Readily hybridizes
    • Pinaceae Pinus rigida
    • Pitch Pine
  19. FGS

    Needles: 3 (sometimes 2)/fascicle; 4-9”, slender but stiff; yellow-green; persisting 3 years
    Cones: Conical-ovoid, 2.5-6”, short stalked; umbro with stout sharp prickle
    Bark: variable, young trees scaly, nearly black, later 0.75-2” thick, with irregular, brownish blocks

    Range: southern NJ, DE, MD to northern FL and E. TX
    Habit: 90-110’, 2-2.5’dia.; long, cylindrical bole, open crown, though denser than other s. pines; grows on wide range of sites; rapid growth
    Leading commercial timber species in southern U.S.; 2 billion seedlings planted/yr.; pioneer species
    Naturally hybridizes
    • Pinaceae Pinus taeda
    • Loblolly Pine
  20. FGS
    Needles: 3/fascicle, rarely 4 or 5; 8-18”, stout, flexible; bright green, densely tufted at ends of branches; buds with silvery-white imbricate scales
    Cones: Conical-cylindrical, 6-10”, sessile; umbro with a dorsal prickle curving toward the base of the scale
    Bark: Rough, black when young, large reddish plates when old

    Range: SE VA to FL, across to east TX
    Habit: 80-100’, 2-2.5’dia.; first 3-6 yrs. ‘grass stage’; extremely fire-resistant
    While one of most distinctive and important southern conifers, estimated only about 3% of original pre-settlement 90 million acres currently remain; renewed interest
    High quality lumber, pulp, bark and pine straw mulch; red-cockaded woodpecker habitat 
    • Pinaceae Pinus palustris
    • Longleaf Pine
  21. FGS

    Needles: 2 and 3/fascicle,6-9”, dark glossy green, tufted at ends of tapering branches but extending back along the branch; stout, rigid; buds with red-brown, white-ciliate scales
    Cones: Ovoid, 2.5-7”, short-stalked; umbro with short, sharp prickle; persistent for 1 year
    Bark: Deeply furrowed on young trees, later becoming plated and approx. 1” thick

    Range: SE SC, GA, AL, MS and FL; low flat woods, pond margins, swamps, uplands and old fields
    Habit: 60-100’, to 2’ dia., straight trunk, narrow ovoid crown
    Fast grower, susceptible to fire, aggressive
    Quality fiber for pulp & paper, timber, naval stores; widely planted
    • Pinaceae Pinus elliottii
    • Slash Pine
  22. Which pines are natualized hard pines
    L. occidentalis – western larch

    • P. sylvestris, Scotch pine
    • Larix – larch

    P. thunbergii, Japanese black pine
  23. FGS

    P. thunbergii, Japanese black pine: 
    Naturalized from MA along Atlantic Coast
    Similar to red pine with 2 needles/fascicle, but: needles bending, not breaking when bent; silvery rather than reddish brown buds; minutely armed cone scales
    Differs from Austrian: stalked, truncate-based cones; non-resinous terminal buds

    Cold-hardy and resistant to salt spray
    Usually less than 25’, with open crown, few long, spreading or pendulous branches, with up-turned tips showing conspicuous silvery, candle-like buds
    Pinaceae Pinus
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Dendro Week 11