Is the study of genes, inheritance and variation in living organisms
a gene is a proportion of DNA that codes for a protein. The gene is the basic unit of inheritance/ passage of traits from parents to offspring
define: genetic technologies
procedures that are used to detect and/or manipulate DNA
What does DNA consist of?
- Deoxyribonucleic acid:
- Sugar: deoxyribose
- Nitrogen base
- phosphate group
Where is DNA located and how?
- In euks Dna is packaged inside the nucleus
- to fit in there the DNA is superfolded aided by histones
What are the four nucleotides and who does each bind with?
- Adenine to thymine (2 H bonds)
- Guanine to Cytosine (3 H bonds) need higher temp to break down
What is a double helix?
two strands of DNA fold around each other to form a double helix
What are the processes
DNA to DNA
DNA to RNA
RNA to Protein
- DNA to DNA replication
- DNA to RNA transcription
- RNA to PROTEIN translation
THhree major steps in DNA replication
- 1. DNA undwinding/ DNA denaturation
- -inside the cell, it requires Helicase enzyme
- -in the lab you can heat DNA at about 96 degrees
- 2. Primer synthesis and annealing
- -primers are short nucleotide sequences
- -inside the cell, enzyme primase synthesizes primers
- -in the lab primers are synthesised by companies
- 3. DNA elongation by enzyme DNA polymerase
Where does replication start?
Replication starts at a region of DNA called the origin of replication specific sequences where helicase enzynmes can unwind
- Individuals usually differ in nucleotide sequences
- SNPs- Single Nucleotide Polymorphism: DNA variations involving a single nucleotide
- SNPs are the most common DNA polymorphisms
- **Most genetic technologies function by detecting DNA polymorphisms
What genetic technologies where discussed in class?
- Polymerase Chain Reaction
What is a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
- 1. Denaturation of template strands @ 94 defrees H bonds broken
- 2. Primer annealing to template (DNA)
- 3. Extension of primers
- cycle gets repeated 25-35 times
- ** Most other genetic technologies use it because it amplifies DNA so increases the amount you have
What is DNA sequencing
- DNA sequencing refers to determining the order of bases in a segment of DNA
- Species ID using sequencing - the sequences are highly conserved within species but highly variable between species
What is Genotyping
- Productivity (selective breeding)
- P = G + E
- (phenotype = genotype + enviro)
- ie Milk yield = genes + enviro (nutrition, disease control)
- ie Carcass and meat quality researched in pigs (pH, drip loss, crude fat, fatty acid profile)
What is cloning?
- Purpose: Increase the numbers of desired genotypes
- -ease of management because animals are uniform
Different people react differently to the same drug. What are the classifications of these drugs?
- Drug toxic but beneficial
- Drug toxic and not beneficial
- durg not toxic but beneficial
- drug not toxic but not beneficial either
There are several genetic technology such as PCR, genotyping, sequencing, and cloning. what are they good for?
These technologies can be applied in the diagnosis of diseases, selection for production traits and animal health