the audience's characteristics based on age, gender, race, religion, etc.
an audience's attitudes and beliefs
time of day
What is in a statement of central idea?
goal of the speech
topic of the speech
method of speech development
when a teacher asks the class a question, and gives the class a short time to think about it.
ad lib speaking
when a teacher calls on a student and they have no time to think about it.
use of notes or an outline while speaking.
use of pictures instead of notes in a list form.
material is written out and delivered word for word
speech is written out and then committed to memory
What makes a source credible?
universities, scholarly or government internet websites
an unbiased author
supporting material - exposition
gives the necessary background material
a summary of each segment of your presentation before you move on to the next segment
a statement that alerts the audience to ideas that are coming
reviews where the listeners have been, states where they are presently, and forecasts where they are going.
What does the introduction include?
attention grabbing material
statement of the central idea
spatial method of issue arrangement
follows a geographic pattern
ex: how people dress in the west, middle, and east
time method of issue arrangement
arranges events in chronological order
topical method of issue arrangement
a speaker explains an issue and divides it into its component parts.
ex: a speech about wines would divide it into the different types of wines
causal method of issue arrangement
shows how two events are connected
comparison-contrast method of issue arrangement
shows the similarities and differences between two things
problem-solution method of issue arrangement
identifies a problem and attempts to solve it.
What should the conclusion include?
a summary of your presentation
a clincher - meaningful quote, funny story, rhetorical question
as the speech proceeds, it's divided into a number of points
comes after the central idea.
a list of the main ideas that will be presented
the speaker lays out supporting evidence and then leads the listeners to draw a conclusion.
speaker discusses central idea without breaking it into subpoints
speaker jumps directly into examples that back up their central idea
a group presents its findings or recommendations
ex: a financial advisor speaks to their client about their finances
statement describing a process, explaining a technique, or discussing new elements to people within a business or industry.
a speech in which the presenter briefs his or her audience on some findings
ex: undergraduate research conferences
make a poster and people come to see your work and ask questions
speech of conviction
speaker tries to convince the listener to believe in his/her views
speech of actuation
speaker tries to get audience to act
persuasive strategies: personal involvement
a person who has something at stake will most likely be persuaded by a message that solves a personal problem
persuasive strategies: Elaboration Likelihood Model
the theory that states that if the issue being discussed is one that the listener has encountered before, is interested and involved in, he or she is more likely to pay attention to the speaker’s arguments.
Doesn’t mean that he/she will be persuaded by the speaker though.
the degree to which the listener believes that he/she has the support of others
social support: principle of liking
we're more likely to be influenced by people we like.
so if you're the speaker, compliment your audience
social support: principle of reciprocity
humans like to treat others how they've treated us, and we don't like to feel indebted.
you might decide to buy more from a retailer if they give you a huge discount
social support: principle of social proof
relies on the principle of "safety in numbers."
if a lot of people are buying a product, we feel it's safe to buy it as well.
social support: principle of consistency
humans have a desire to be consistent.
once we've committed to something, we have a deep desire to go through with it.
social support: principle of authority
people will listen to experts.
social support: principle of scarcity
if you tell people they only have a certain amount of time to act and make a difference, they'll be more likely to do it.
What makes a speaker credible?
competent: have knowledge, wisdom, and authority on a topic.
charisma: be able to hold an audience's attention
character: reputation, honesty, and sensitivity
logical arguments: proposition of fact
states the existence of something in the past, present, or future
logical arguments: proposition of value
states the value of something
must have an adjective in the central idea
logical arguments: proposition of policy
states that something should or shouldn't be done.
there's a factor of probability
what conclusion might be accepted
based on the premises, if they're true, then the conclusion must by true.
a number of specific instances are examined.
From these, you attempt to predict some future occurrence or explain a whole category of instances.
a hypothesis is used to explain all the
evidence; however, the hypothesis must provide the best explanation.
an either-or argument in which true alternatives must be established.
Either the Red Sox win or the Yankees win. The Red Sox did not win, therefore, the Yankees won.
sets up an if-then proposition. There are 2 conditions.
If it’s hot outside, then there will be a lot of people at the pool.
speaker reaches a general conclusion from an insufficient amount of evidence
faulty causal reasoning
when the speaker claims that one event caused another without thinking about other possible reasons