Comm Final

  1. What are the 3 parameters for public speaking?
    • participants
    • setting
    • purpose of the speech
  2. What makes a speech listenable?
    • organization
    • good transitions
    • same language level 
    • logical information
  3. demographics
    the audience's characteristics based on age, gender, race, religion, etc.
  4. psychographics
    an audience's attitudes and beliefs 
  5. rheterographics
    • the place
    • time limit
    • time of day
    • emotional climate
  6. What is in a statement of central idea?
    • goal of the speech
    • topic of the speech
    • method of speech development
  7. impromptu speaking
    when a teacher asks the class a question, and gives the class a short time to think about it. 
  8. ad lib speaking
    when a teacher calls on a student and they have no time to think about it. 
  9. extemporaneous speaking
    use of notes or an outline while speaking. 
  10. mind mapping
    use of pictures instead of notes in a list form. 
  11. manuscript mode
    material is written out and delivered word for word
  12. memorized mode
    speech is written out and then committed to memory 
  13. What makes a source credible?
    • up-to-date
    • universities, scholarly or government internet websites
    • an unbiased author
  14. supporting material - exposition
    gives the necessary background material
  15. internal summaries
    a summary of each segment of your presentation before you move on to the next segment
  16. forecast
    a statement that alerts the audience to ideas that are coming
  17. signposting
    reviews where the listeners have been, states where they are presently, and forecasts where they are going.
  18. What does the introduction include?
    • attention grabbing material
    • orienting material
    • statement of the central idea 
  19. spatial method of issue arrangement
    • follows a geographic pattern
    • ex: how people dress in the west, middle, and east
  20. time method of issue arrangement
    arranges events in chronological order
  21. topical method of issue arrangement
    • a speaker explains an issue and divides it into its component parts. 
    • ex: a speech about wines would divide it into the different types of wines
  22. causal method of issue arrangement
    shows how two events are connected 
  23. comparison-contrast method of issue arrangement
    shows the similarities and differences between two things
  24. problem-solution method of issue arrangement
    identifies a problem and attempts to solve it.
  25. What should the conclusion include?
    • a summary of your presentation
    • a clincher - meaningful quote, funny story, rhetorical question
  26. Partitioning method
    • as the speech proceeds, it's divided into a number of points
    • informative method
  27. partitioning step
    • comes after the central idea. 
    • a list of the main ideas that will be presented
  28. unfolding method
    • the speaker lays out supporting evidence and then leads the listeners to draw a conclusion.
    • persuasive speeches
  29. case method
    • speaker discusses central idea without breaking it into subpoints
    • speaker jumps directly into examples that back up their central idea
  30. team briefing
    a group presents its findings or recommendations
  31. one-on-one briefing
    • more informal
    • ex: a financial advisor speaks to their client about their finances
  32. technical reports
    statement describing a process, explaining a technique, or discussing new elements to people within a business or industry. 
  33. professional paper
    • a speech in which the presenter briefs his or her audience on some findings 
    • ex: undergraduate research conferences
  34. poster session
    make a poster and people come to see your work and ask questions
  35. speech of conviction
    speaker tries to convince the listener to believe in his/her views
  36. speech of actuation
    speaker tries to get audience to act
  37. persuasive strategies: personal involvement
    a person who has something at stake will most likely be persuaded by a message that solves a personal problem
  38. persuasive strategies: Elaboration Likelihood Model 
    • the theory that states that if the issue being discussed is one that the listener has encountered before, is interested and involved in, he or she is more likely to pay attention to the speaker’s arguments.
    • Doesn’t mean that he/she will be persuaded by the speaker though. 
  39. social support
    the degree to which the listener believes that he/she has the support of others
  40. social support: principle of liking
    • we're more likely to be influenced by people we like.
    • so if you're the speaker, compliment your audience
  41. social support: principle of reciprocity
    • humans like to treat others how they've treated us, and we don't like to feel indebted. 
    • you might decide to buy more from a retailer if they give you a huge discount
  42. social support: principle of social proof
    • relies on the principle of "safety in numbers."
    • if a lot of people are buying a product, we feel it's safe to buy it as well. 
  43. social support: principle of consistency
    • humans have a desire to be consistent. 
    • once we've committed to something, we have a deep desire to go through with it.
  44. social support: principle of authority
    people will listen to experts. 
  45. social support: principle of scarcity
    if you tell people they only have a certain amount of time to act and make a difference, they'll be more likely to do it.
  46. What makes a speaker credible?
    • competent: have knowledge, wisdom, and authority on a topic.
    • charisma: be able to hold an audience's attention
    • character: reputation, honesty, and sensitivity
  47. logical arguments: proposition of fact
    states the existence of something in the past, present, or future
  48. logical arguments: proposition of value
    • states the value of something
    • must have an adjective in the central idea
  49. logical arguments: proposition of policy
    states that something should or shouldn't be done.
  50. inductive argument
    • bottom-up
    • there's a factor of probability
    • what conclusion might be accepted
  51. deductive argument
    • top-down
    • based on the premises, if they're true, then the conclusion must by true.
  52. generalization conclusion
    •  a number of specific instances are examined.
    • From these, you attempt to predict some future occurrence or explain a whole category of instances.
  53. hypothesis conclusion
    • a hypothesis is used to explain all the
    • evidence; however, the hypothesis must provide the best explanation.
  54. disjunctive argument
    • an either-or argument in which true alternatives must be established.
    • Either the Red Sox win or the Yankees win. The Red Sox did not win, therefore, the Yankees won.
  55. conditional argument
    • sets up an if-then proposition. There are 2 conditions.
    • If it’s hot outside, then there will be a lot of people at the pool. 
  56. hasty generalizations
    speaker reaches a general conclusion from an insufficient amount of evidence
  57. faulty causal reasoning
    when the speaker claims that one event caused another without thinking about other possible reasons
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Comm Final
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