AP Bio 54

  1. interspecific interactions
    • Some key relationships in the life of an organism are its interactions with individual of other species
    • these include competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis (including parasistism, mutalism, and commensalism), and facilitation
  2. predation
    is a +/- interaction between species in which on species, the predator, kills and eats the other, the prey
  3. Mutualism
    is a +/+ interaction that benifits both species
  4. Interspecific competition
    is a -/- interaction that occurs when individuals of different species compete for a resource that limits their growth and survival.
  5. competitive exclusion (related to interspecific competition)
    In the absence of disturbance, one species will use the resources more efficiently and reproduce more rapidly. Even a slight reproduction advantage will eventally lead to local elimination of the inferior competitor
  6. ecological niche
    the sum of a species use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment 
  7. resource partitioning
    the differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community
  8. fundamental niche
    is the niche potentially occupied by a species
  9. realized niche
    the portion of its fundamental niche that it actually occupies in a particular environment 
  10. Cryptic coloration
    or other wise known as camouflage, makes prey difficult to see
  11. aposematic coloration
    (or warning coloration) Animals with effective defenses often exhibit these, such as that of the poison dart frog.  
  12. Batesian mimicry
    a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful one.
  13. Mullerian mimicry
    two or more unpalatable species resemble each other
  14. Herbivory
    refer to a +/- interaction in which an organism eats parts of a plant or alga. 
  15. symbiosis
    when individuals of two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another
  16. Parasitism
    is a +/- symbiotic interaction in which one organism, the parasite, derives its nourishment from another orgism, its host, which is harmed in the process.
  17. commensalism
    an interaction between species that benefits one of the species but niether hamrs nor helps the other (+/0)
  18. facilitation
    species can have positive effects (+/+ or 0/+) on the survival and reproduction of other species without necessarily living in the direct and intimate contact of a symbiosis. 
  19. species diversity
    the variety of different kinds of organisms that makee up the community
  20. species richness
    the number of different species in the community.
  21. relative abundance
    the proportion each species represents of all individuals in the community
  22. trophic structure
    the structure and dynamics of a community also depends on the feeding relationship between organisms
  23. energetic hypothesis
    suggests that the length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain. 
  24. dynamic stability hypothesis
    proposes that long food chains are less stable than short chains
  25. bottom-up model
    postulates a unidirectional influence from lower to higher trophic levels
  26. top-down model
    Predation mainly controls community organization because preditors limit herbivores, herbivores limit plants, and plants limit nutrient levels through nutrient uptake
  27. intermediate disturbnce hypotesis
    states that moderate levels of disturbance foster greater species diversity than do low or high levels of disturbance
  28. ecological succession
    the proces in which the disturbed area may be colonized by a variety of spieces, which are gradually replaced by other species, which are in turn replaced by still other species
  29. primary succession
    when ecological succession begings in a virtually lifeless area where soil has not yet formed, such as in a new volcanic island or on the rubble lift by a retreating glacier.
  30. secondary succession
    occures when an existing community has been sleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact, like after fires.
Card Set
AP Bio 54
AP Bio 54