Psychology - stress- key studies

  1. General adaption syndrome (GAS)
    Seyle (1958)
  2. Kiecolt-Glaser et al (1984) - immunosuppression in medical students
    T cell activity was lower in 2nd blood sample. T cell activity was most reduced in ppts who reported high levels of life events and loneliness
  3. Riley (1981) - rats
    • Rats on turntable
    • over 5 hours he found decreased lymphocyte count - immune system was suppressed
    • Riley also implanted cancer cells into 2 groups of mice and found mice on turntable developed cancer
  4. Kiecolt-Glaser et al (2005) - chronic stress and immune system
    • Tested impact of interpersonal conflict on wound healing
    • Blister wounds healed slower after conflictive than after supportive discussions
    • Women showed greater immune system suppression following marital conflict than men
  5. Social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)
    Holmes and Rahe (1967)
  6. LCU (life chance units)
    • > 150 = 30% increase in risk of illness
    • >300 = 50% increase
  7. Rahe et al (1970) - life changes as a source of stress
    • 2500 male American sailors
    • Weak positive correlation between lige change scores and illness scores.
    • As LCU increased so did the frequence of illness
  8. Stone (1987) - life changes as a source of stress
    • Undesirable events caused illness
    • Desirable events decreased illness
  9. Evaluation of life changes approach - self report can be unreliable as remembering life events from the previous year can be difficult
    Paphael (1991)
  10. Hassles Scale (117 items) 
    Uplifts scale (135 items) 
    Lazarus & Kanner
  11. Research on daily hassels - australian study found that daily hassles produced greater psychological and physical dysfunction than major negative life events
    Ruffin (1993)
  12. Research on daily hassles - scores on hassles scale correlated with levels of depression, anxiety and health problems
    Kanner et al (1981)
  13. Research on daily hassles - compared both scores on hassles scale and life event scale and found that correlations with health outcomes were greater for the hassles scores. Uplifts were unrelated to health score
    Delongis (1982)
  14. Evaluation of research into daily hassels - found African Americans used more social networking than white Americans
    Kim and McKenry (1998)
  15. Evaluation of research into daily hassels - found that Korean adolescents reported having more daily hassels that contributed to maladjustment than they had social support from significant other.
    Sim (2000)
  16. Research into workplace stress - Marmot et al (1997)
    People with low job control were 4x more likely to die from a heart attack than those with high job control.
  17. Evaluation of Marmot et al's study - suggests that the relationship between control and stress related illness may be more complicated. If high control comes with high responsibility stress related illness can still occur
    Brady (1958)
  18. Workload research - Johansson et al (1978)
    • High risk group had higher levels of hormones than cleaners higher on work days than rest days.
    • 'Finishers' showed more stress-related illnesses
  19. Evaluation of Johansson et al's study on workload - claims that study into workplace stressors misses the point that there are differences in the way individuals react to and cope with stress
    Lazarus (1995)
  20. Type A behaviour and CHD - Friedman and Rosenman (1974)
    Eight years later at follow up - 257 had developed CHD - 69% were previously described as type A
  21. Evaluation of Friedman and Rosenman's study - confirmed the importance of CHD risk factors (smoking, age, high BP) but found little/no evidence of a link between type A personality and CHD
    Ragland and Brand (1988)
  22. Evaluation of Friedman and Rosenman's study - meta-analysis of 35 studies and only found a link between CHD and hostility (factor of type A behaviour)
    Myrtek (2001)
  23. Evaluation of Friedman and Rosenman's study - high hostility produces increasesd activity in the sympathic nervous system
    Mathews (1977)
  24. Hardiness
  25. Hardiness - people with high scores on scales measuring hardiness are less likely to suffer from stress-related illnesses
    Kobasa et al (1985)
  26. SIT - believes the power of positive thinking in SIT can succesfully change people's behaviour
    Meichenbaum (1997)
Card Set
Psychology - stress- key studies
Key studies