What is the difference between monitoring and surveillance?
- Monitoring: noting and recording
- Surveillance: noting, recording, and responding
What are the types of surveillance?
- Targeted: looking for a specific disease
- Active: going and looking for it (ie testing herd or bull) *or mosquitop traps for West nile
- Passive: uses records that already exist that were taken for other reasons (ie examining pregnancy records)
Why where chickens put on the boarders between manitoba and sask, and alberta and montana?
as indicators of west nile
How do we know a change in feed laws helped get rid of BSE?
- Through BSE surveillance
- brain samples sent in because it is a reportable disease
- met OIE surveillance standards
***What is the purpose of surveillance?
- early warning
- trend analysis
- evaluation of disease control
- public health
- international trade- surveillance post outbreak, and freedom from disease
What population is examined?
- media (google ie indicator of flu outbreak)
- sentinel ie monitor vaccinated bird flock
- targeted: go out and look
- syndromic: taake present complaints
What is Rumor surveillance?
- news papers
- google searches
- twitter feeds
- watch for trends
- problem is to monitor the systems Promed
- Health Map
What are the components of a surveillance system?
- collection of info
- dissemination of knowledge (process and get out to people)
- recovery of industry
Ellaborate on the Canadian Aviaqn Influenza surveillance
- Wild bird surveillance
- surv. happens in domestic bird poultry when clinical signs suggestive of notifiable AI are reported
- surv. when notifiable AI is detected
- Pre-slaughter surv in commerical poultry as well as active targeted sureveillance
- voluntary enhanced surb. in the poultry genetic exporter sector
- si confident no AI found in a coutnry
What is the OIE and why is it significant in surv.
- Now called world organization for animal health
- set up to help control trade and diseased animals
- set international trade regulations with disease with WTO
- member countries can chose to report to OIE
- has a summarized report on data bas
- every OIE member can post disease
What is AVSN?
- Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network:
- disease investigationreportable disease under Animal Health act
- notifiable disease under the animal health act
- vet practice surveillance
- disease investigation network
- participating vets submit info for time they see cattle at a farm, auction market, cmmunity pasture, or in a clinic
- enter data ontop website
- disease or non disease visit
- number on the farm,, syndrome, symptoms of diease, nuimber affected
- shared data base fpr swine, small ruminants and poultry
- if find unsual number can invesitage or an unusual sign (ie ulcers around mouth will want to invesitage to make sure it is not foot and mouth)
What are some examples of surv. and responses by AVSN?
- salmonella enterditis
- -Fed/prov req for hatching supply flock
- -AB regulates SE in conjunction with egg indusry
What are the conclusions about surveillance
- surv. is used to support moevemtn of animals and animal products
- works at flock, regional and national levels
- several ways to do surv.
What is the WTO
- deligate responsibility of the animal health products to the OIE
- The WTO is the only global international organization that deals with the rules of trade between nations
- At the heart are the WTO agreements negotatied and signed by the bulk of the world's trading nations and ratified in their parlaiments the goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business (goal = free trade)
- it is the countries parlaments decision whether or not to abide by those rules and guidlines
What are the issues behind safe food?
- How do you ensure that a countrys consumers are being supplied with food that is safe to eat? by your standards (diffe countries have different standards)
- and at the same time how can you ensure that strict health and safety guidelines are NOT being used as an excuse for protecting domestic producers?
- health = a non tariff barrier
- The Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreements take care of this
Who is responsible fore improving animal health worldwide?
How do countries ensure the imports/ exporst of animals and animal products are safe?
- ** risk assessment
- health measures
Ellaborate on RISK ASSESSMENT
- hazard ID
- risk assessment (what is the likelihood and consequence of hazard importation?) canada does its own assessment of other countries diseases
- risk management (Id and use measure to reduce risk)
- risk communications (exchange of info including preception of risk among the parties)- OIE is a means of communication
Ellaborate on EQUIVALENCE
- cant demand more of others than your internal standards end results can be similar even if methods are different
- use OIE standards preferably
- if you use higher standards they must be scientifically defendable
- cannot demand of exporter more than is demanded internally
- so under the WTO have to let product in if its equivalant to to others already existing imports
What Health measures are taken by exporting and Importing countries?
- Exporting Country:-zoning ( prove no transport back and forth ie walk main highways where there are no farms)
- -testing on farm
- -food products treated
- Importing Country -Quarantine on arrival
- -testing on arrival (build specialised processing plant deemed appropriate by WTO)
In evaluating veterinary services what do veterinarians have to have the ability to do?
- legal basis
- ability to survey animal population
- ability to diagnose: education and facilities ie labs
- Traceability- of animal and product movement
- Antimicrobials- regulate and monitor residues (some drugs are only vet presctiption)
- export certificates
- sanitary procedures
What happens if a country does not meet standards?
- They are given time to improve their standards and then must redo risk assessment, vet assesmment
- appeals go to the SPS agreement to the WTO