which are the major minerals?
Na, K, Ca, P, Mg
what does the term minerals refer to?
a group of elements (about 50) that are found in foods
are all minerals good?
no, some are required for normal growth and development while others are not and may even be toxic
what are the 3 groups of minor or trace minerals?
- essential nutritive
- non-essential, non-nutritive
- non-essential, non-nutritive, toxic
what are some examples of the essential nutritive minor minerals?
Fe, Zn, Co, Cu, Mn, Se, I, F
what are some examples of the non-essential, non-nutritive minor minerals?
Cr, Al, B, Ni, Sn, Cr, Mb
what are some examples of the non-essential, non-nutritive, toxic minor minerals?
Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Sb
which 2 major minerals are generally considered together?
sodium and potassium
in which form do sodium and potassium occur in foods?
in the salt form (Cl-, SO42-, HPO42-)
are sodium and potassium found in or outside the cells?
- sodium - extracellular
- phosphorous - intracellular
which sources are higher in sodium?
animal sources higher than plant sources (like ham, bacon, butter, sausage or cheese)
which sources are higher in potassium?
- plant based foods
- fruits like bananas
- vegetables like plantains
what is the proper balance of K and Na in cells?
why is this important?
- function to maintain electrical and chemical balancce in boldy fluids on both sides of cells
- they aid in transfer of molecules across membranes through channels
- they aid in transmission of nerve impulses
what is the special function of potassium?
component of several enzymes in the metabolic pathway
is sodium deficiency common?
how does sodium deficiency manifest?
condition is known as HYPONATREMIA which manifests as seizures and comas
is potassium deficiency common?
how does potassium deficiency manifest?
- irregular hearbeat
- heart failure
what do high sodium levels manifest as in the body?
can cause increae in blood volume in the blood vessels and cause high blood pressure
what do high potassium levels manifest as in the body?
can be toxic and manifest as nausea, slow pulse, irregular heartbeat/arrhythmia, heart failure
which individuals need to especially limit intake of salts?
individuals with kidney failure
what is one way to replace sodium salts in foods?
replace with potassium salts
which minerals are the most abundant of all body minerals and what percentage do they make up?
- calcium and phosphorous
- about 70%
a healthy adult of about 70kg will have about _____ of calcium in the body
a healthy adult of about 70kg will have about _____ of phosphorous in the body
where is most of the calcium in the body found?
in bones and teeth
where is most of the phosphorous in the body found?
~70% in bones and teeth, ~30% in the rest of body tissues
besides bones and teeth, in which body tissues is phosphorous found?
it's a component of nucleic acids, lipoproteins, sugar phosphates, high energy phosphate compounds (like ATP, creatine)
what are some food sources of calcium?
- dairy products
what are some food sources for phosphorous?
- fruits and vegetables, as well as muscle foods (added to improve juiciness) and soft drinks (for flavor)
- cereals, beans, eggs
what does calcium do in bones and teeth?
calcium ensures that the active bone tissues get replenished
what does calcium do in body fluids?
Ca++ ensures electrical balance and also participates in blood clotting
what will reduced levels of calcium result in?
weak and thin bones
what will reduced phosphorous levels result in?
general weakness and anorexia
how does phosphorous deficiency arise?
rare, but excessive intake of antacids can cause binding of the P to compounds in the antacid and make the P unavailable
what is toxicity of calcium?
- high levels of calcium can lead to high levels in the blood where they will cause soft tissues to calcify (like the liver or kidney) known as HYPERCALCEMIA
- may manifest as kidney and biliary (gallstone) stones and may even cause kidney damage
what is the toxicity of phosphorous?
high levels will cause joint and bone pains, cause damage to the kidneys, which will cause improper kidney function
a healthy adult of about 70kg will have about _____ of magnesium in the body
where is most of the magnesium in the body found?
~70% in bone and teeth, with balance in body fluids and muscle
what are the food sources of magnesium?
mainly plant materials (green leafy vegetables, cereals, fruits), to a lesser extent in meats
what are the biological functions of magnesium?
- teeth and bone formation
- component of Mg-ATPase that is involved in muscle relaxation and contraction
- component of several enzymes in intermediary metabolism involved in energy generation from the utilization of CH2O in fats and proteins
how do magnesium deficiencies arise?
- deficiencies may arise from excessive loss of body fluids as occurs in diarrhea and cholera
- but very rare because it is widespread in foods, particularly in the fruits and vegetables that are consumed extensively
what are the symptoms of magnesium deficiency?
irregular muscle relaxations and contractions (muscle spasms)
what is the toxicity of magnesium?
high levels can be toxic and cause fall in blood pressure, arrhythmias, kidney problems, muscle weakness, and difficulties in breathing
how much iron is typically found in the body?
where is iron generally found in the body?
liver, spleen, and bones in humans
what roles does iron play in the body?
- in hemoglobin and myoglobin in oxygen transport
- cytochromes (in redox reactions of the ETC)
- enzymes (catalases, peroxidases - also in redox reactions)
how common is iron deficiency?
we would expect it to be rare since it's widespread in foods and efficiently recycled in the body, but this is not so
why does iron deficiency arise?
- iron in foods is generally found in ionic form (Fe2+, Fe3+) which are poorly absorbed
- components in foods like phosphates in raw milk and phytates in plants can bind Fe and make it less readily available
- women of child bearing age lose iron in blood on cyclical basis
what is the result of iron deficiency?
what is the toxicity of iron?
high levels of Fe can cause diarrhea, bloody stools, headaches, confusion, loss of consciousness, coma
what are the plant sources of iron?
- cereals and cereal products
what are the animal sources of iron?
- fish/shellfsh (oysters, sardines)
- lean meats
what are the microbial sources of iron?
where does the body store iron?
why do iron levels in body remain fairly steady?
efficient recycling and widespread occurrence in food materials
what is the average amount of zinc in an adult?
1.5-2g (but he said 75-150mg?)
what are the animal sources of zinc?
- shellfish (oysters)
- organ meats (liver, kidney, brain)
- human milk
what are the plant sources of zinc?
- cereals and cereal products
why is zinc available for uptake from human milk, but not cow milk?
zinc and iron are both present in cow's milk, but the higher phosphae content of cow milk caseins means that the 2 elements are bound more extensively, rendering it less readily available
what are the biological functions of zinc?
- component of several enzymes (like carbonic anhydrase, several dehydrogenases, aldolases, phosphatases)
- enzymes involved in synthesis of nucleic acids
how common is zinc deficiency?
what are the symptoms of zinc deficiency?
- impaired nucleic acid synthesis leading to anemia
- impaired wound healing
- loss of appetite
- growth retardation (dwarfism)
what is the toxicity of zinc?
nausea, vomiting, nerve disorders, loss of appetite, general weakness
what is the average body content of copper?
- this level decreases with age
where is copper found in the body?
kidneys, brain, heart, ceruloplasmin and several enzyme systems (like amino acid oxidases, ascorbic acid oxidase, cytochrome oxidase, PPO, superoxide dismutase)
what are the animal sources of copper?
what are the plant sources of copper?
what are the biological functions of copper?
- component of ceruloplasmin that is required for the synthesis of hemoglobin
- several enzymes require copper
what does deficiency of copper result in?
anemia, skin discoloration, nervous disorders
what is the toxicity of copper?
- high levels can produce highly reactive species such as superoxide ions, hydroxy radicls, H2O2, that can cause oxidative damage to biomolecules (like proteins, lipids, nucleic acids)
- high levels can also cause fall in blood pressure, irregular heartbeats, kidney damage
**when might destruction of vitamin C be useful?**
- Angioplasty, a heart procedure: Avoid taking supplements containing vitamin C or other antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin E) immediately before and following angioplasty without the supervision of a health care professional. These vitamins seem to interfere with proper healing.
- Cancer: Cancerous cells collect high concentrations of vitamin C. Until more is known, only use high doses of vitamin C under the direction of your oncologist.
- Diabetes: Vitamin C might raise blood sugar. In older women with diabetes, vitamin C in amounts greater than 300 mg per day increases the risk of death from heart disease. Do not take vitamin C in doses greater than those found in basic multivitamins.
- Blood-iron disorders, including conditions called “thalassemia” and “hemochromatosis”: Vitamin C can increase iron absorption, which might make these conditions worse. Avoid large amounts of vitamin C.
- Kidney stones, or a history of kidney stones: Large amounts of vitamin C can increase the chance of getting kidney stones. Do not take vitamin C in amounts greater than those found in basic multivitamins.
- A metabolic deficiency called “glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency” (G6PDD): Large amounts of vitamin C can cause red blood cells to break in people with this condition. Avoid excessive amounts of vitamin C.
- Sickle cell disease: Vitamin C might make this condition worse. Avoid using large amounts of vitamin C.
why is cobalt considered a trace element?
it is an essential component of cyanocobalmine, or vitamin B12
what are the animal sources for cobalt?
- meats and dairy
- fish and shellfish
are plants good sources for cobalt?
plants are very poor sources
what are the biological functions of cobalt?
- only known function is in the synthesis of vitamin B12
- the small amount found in meats and dairy products are adequate for this purpose
what does cobalt deficiency result in?
- impaired DNA and hemoglobin synthesis
- anemia because vitamin B12 participates in nucleic acid synthesis, making proteins like hemoglobin
**what is the importance of B4, B8, B10, and B11?**
- status as vitamins unclear
- can be synthesized by body
- components of other vitamins
- widespread in food
- if we consider these a vitamin, we'd have to consider a lot of other compounds vitamins
what is B4?
adenine, a nucleobase
what is B10?
p-amino benzoic acid (PABA)
what is B8?
what is B11?
pteryl-hepta-glutamic acid, chick growth factor, which is a form of folic acid. Later found to be one of five folatesnecessary for humans; also known as vitamin S or factor S.
where is manganese found?
nuts, grains, cereals, green leafy vegetables, fruits
what are the biological functions of manganese?
- functions similar to magnesium, but cannot replace Mg since Mn body levels are much lower
- component of several very important enzymes, such as:
- enzymes that participate in synthesis of proteoglycans for cartilage
- enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of proline (proline is
- essential for collagen formation)
- cartilage and collagen are essential components of skeletal tissue
- enzymes that participate in gluconeogeneis i.e. synthesis of glucose from non carbohydrate sources (ex. Amino acids, lipids) such as PEPCK (phosphoenol pyruvate carboxy kinase), or PFK (phosphofructokinase)
what are the symptoms of manganese deficiency?
- impaired development of skeletal tissues
- joint pain
- impaired wound healing
what is the toxicity of manganese?
high levels can be toxic and cause neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease, facial spasms, improper gait and movements
what do superoxides + manganese produce?
what are the food sources of selenium?
- in countries where soils are high in selenium, plant foods can also be good sources
what are the biological functions of selenium?
Se is a component of glutathione peroxidase. Glutathione Peroxidase breaks down H2O2 and organic peroxides into innocuous forms and thus protects biological tissues like brain and liver from oxidative damage
what is the toxic level of selenium?
greater than 100 micrograms per day
what does selenium toxicity result in?
high levels can be toxic and the condition known as selinosis manifests as gastrointestinal problems, fatigue, irratability, nerve damage
what does selenium deficiency result in?
- heart problems and weakened immune systems making persons deficient in the mineral prone to infectious diseases
- it can also result in slowed growth and development (cretinism and mental retardation)
what are the food sources of iodine?
- fish/shellfish including sea vegetables
- dairy products
- I content of food really low, so added to salt to supplement dietary intake
what is the biological function of iodine?
- component of 2 important hormones: thyroxine and trilodothyronine
- these hormones are important in the regulation of metablism (ex. carbohydrate synthesis and utilization, protein synthesis)
what does iodine deficiency result in?
swelling of thyroid gland, condition known as GOITER
what is the toxicity of iodine?
- high levels may manifest as burning sensation in hte mouth, throat, and abdomen
- may cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weak pulse, and sometimes coma
what is the toxicity level of iodine?
greater than 1,000 micrograms per day can be toxic
what are the biological functions of fluorine?
- component of teeth and bone
- prevents dental caries in humans
- slows down osteoporosis in the elderly
what are the food sources of fluorine?
- added to drinking water
what are the symptoms of fluorine deficiency?
- dental caries
what is the toxicity level of fluorine?
20-80 mg/day can be toxic