Bio Psych Final Review

  1. A cell that responds to a particular form of energy. Often a specialized neuron
  2. The energy form for which the receptor is specialized
    Adequate stimulus
  3. The number of cycle vibrations per second. Measured in Hertz or Hz.
  4. The phsycial height of the wave measured in decibels
    Amplitude or Intensity
  5. The perception of the amplitude
  6. Selects sounds in a particular direction and captures then amplifies it
  7. Located at the end of the auditory canal, which transmits the sound vibration of the ossicles
    Tympanic membrane
  8. Three tiny bones that transfer vibration from the typmanic membrane to the cochela, amplifying sound
  9. A snail-shaped structure where the sound anlayzing structures are located
  10. The sound analyzing structure resting on the basil membrane that converts the sound of vibration to a neural signal
    Organ of Corti
  11. There are 12,000 of these in three rows that encode sound
    Outer hair cells
  12. There are 3500 of these that amplify sounds and provide adjustable frequency selectivity
    Inner hair cells
  13. Encodes sound location and projects it to the frontal lobe
    Dorsal stream
  14. Encodes sound identity
    Ventral stream
  15. Neurons fire at the same rate as the vibration of the sound source...aka the telephone theory
    Frequency Theory
  16. A theory that states neurons can follow the frequency of a sound by combining responses of groups of individual neurons.
    Volley Theory
  17. The ability to distinguish an individual sound source in a complex auditory enviroment
    Cocktail party effect
  18. Using two ears
  19. This cue works best at low frequencies which can pass through the head
    Difference in time of arrival
  20. Neurons that fire the most when the input from both ears arrive at the same time
    Coincidence detectors
  21. Posterior part of the left frontal lobe anterior to the motor cortex. Involved with fluent speech and articulating proper grammar
    Broca's area
  22. Posterior part of the left temporal lobe. Characterized by word-salad phrases where language is fluent but contains meaningless words
    Wernicke's area
  23. The inability to read which is a problem with the angular gyrus
  24. The inability to write which also involves the angular gyrus
  25. The inability to read
  26. The adequate stimulus of visible light which makes up 1/70th of the electromagnetic spectrum
    The Visible spectrum
  27. Rods and cones are found in this area of the eye which is the photorecpetor of light
  28. Reacts to light
  29. Reacts to lights in rods
  30. Reacts to light in cones
  31. The area of the retina from which a ganglion cell recieves its input
    Receptive field
  32. The part of the environment that is being registered on the retina
    Visual field
  33. The discrepancy in the locaiton of an image on the two retinas providing one of the depth cues
    Retina disparity
  34. Young and Helmhlotz proposed that only 3 types of color receptors (red, green, blue) is detectable in every visible color
    Trichromatic Theory
  35. Recognized that yellow is also one of the primary colors but proposed the eye only has 2 color receptors (one for red and green, and another for bue and yellow
    Opponent Process Theory
  36. Hurvich and Jameson proposed 3 types of color receptors (red, green and blue)
    Combined Theory
  37. Located in the visual cortex
    Retinotpic map
  38. The detection of an objects' boundaries and features
    Form vision
  39. Responds to a line or an edge at a specific orientation and a specific place on the retina
    Simple cells
  40. Continue to respond when a line or edge moves to a new location near the original site
    Complex cells
  41. Visual cortical cells do a Fourier frequency analysis of the luminosity variations in the environment while some complex cells respond to high and low frequencies
    Spatial Frequency Theory
  42. Information is processed by ascending through increasingly complex levels of the nervous system
    Hierarchial Processing
  43. Visual processing occurs across a wide area of the brain
    Distributed Processing
  44. Originates from ganglion cells located mainly in the fovea with small color opponent circular receptive fields. This system is specialized for detail and color
    Parvocelluar system
  45. Originates from the ganglion cells with large, brightness-opponent circular receptive fields that respond only briefly to stimulation. It is particuarly effective at analyzing brigthness contrast and movement
    Magnocellular system
  46. Handles the "what" of processing and progresses through V1, V2 and into V4 where color is percieved then to the infereior temporal lobes and is dominated by the parvocelluar system
    Ventral stream
  47. Handles the "where" of processing and flows from the visual cortex to the parietal lobes and is dominated by the magnocellular system.
    Dorsal stream
  48. Arrives in areas of V1 that respond to orientation, movement and retina disparity, then proceeds through V2 and V5 (MT), where movement is percieved then on to the posterior parietal cortex
    Dorsal stream
  49. The impaired ability to visually recognize familar faces
  50. The sensation in one sense triggers experiences in another due to excessive connection between the areas orĀ overbinding.
  51. To exaggerate brightness and constrast defining an object's edge
    Lateral inhibition
  52. A disorder characterized by perceptual, emotional and intellectual deficits, loss of contact with reality and inability to funtion in life
  53. The individual has severe disturbances of reality, orientation and thinking and affects 1% of the population
  54. What are some characteristics of schizophrenia/psychosis?
    • 1. Paranoi
    • 2. Halluciantion
    • 3. Inappropriate Emotion
    • 4. Delusion
    • 5. Social withdrawl
  55. Develop suddenly and respond well to treatment
    Actue symptoms
  56. Develop gradually and are harder to treat
    Chronic symptoms
  57. Suggest that genetic predispositions provide the threshold for environmental challenges before schizophrenia is exhibited
    Vulnerabiltiy model
  58. Involve the presence or exaggeration of behaviors
    Positive sympotms (Type I)
  59. Responds to antidopamine drugs
    Positive symptoms
  60. Characterized by the absense or insufficiency of normal behavior
    Negative symptoms (Type II)
  61. Resistant to antidopamine drugs
    Negative Symptoms
  62. Schizophrenia is involved in excessive dopamine activity in the brain
    Dopamine hypothesis
  63. PCP mimics schizophrenia by inhibitng NMDA receptors
    Glutamate theory
  64. Disorders that include depression and mania
    Affective disorders
  65. Symptoms of sadness and hopelessness which can last for weeks to months
    Major Depression
  66. Depression appears alone
    Unipolar Depression
  67. Depression occurs with periods of mania
    Bipolar Depression
  68. Excess energy, decreased need for sleep, increased sex drive and often drug use
    Bipolar Depression
  69. Involves reduced activity at norepinephrine and serotnin synapses
    Monoamine hypothesis
  70. Blocks enzymatic destruction of neurotransmitters. Ingredients in tobacco
    Monoamin Oxidase Inhibitor
  71. Blocks reuptake
    Tricyclic Antidepressants
  72. Targets a specific neurotransmitter
    Atypical (Second generation) Antidepressants
  73. Stabilizes neurotransmitters and receptor systems to prevent large mood swings
  74. Prolonged stress reaction to traumatic events
    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  75. Involves persistent reccuring thoughts and irresistible impulses to act
    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  76. Recurring Thoughts
  77. Irresitible impulses to act
Card Set
Bio Psych Final Review
Bio Psych Final Review