Anatomy Final Exam

  1. ganglion
    cluster of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS
  2. nuclei
    cluster of neuronal cell bodies in the CNS
  3. tract
    a bundle of axons in the CNS
  4. nerve
    a bundle of axons in the PNS
  5. Depolarization phase of an action potential
    sodium gates open
  6. repolarization of action potential
    sodium gates begin to close and potassium gates open. (potassium is usually inside the cell)
  7. septum pellucidum
    connects the lateral ventricles
  8. interventricular foramen
    connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle. 
  9. cerebral aqueduct
    connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle
  10. commissural tracts
    • made of commissural fibers.
    • Connects corresponding gray areas of the 2 hemispheres, allowing them to function as a whole.
    • Ex: corpus callosum.
  11. projection tracts
    • run vertically
    • Ties the cerebral cortex to the rest of the nervous system and to the body’s receptors. 
  12. association tracts
    connect different parts of the brain in the same hemisphere
  13. Group A fibers
    • largest diameter
    • heavily myelinated
    • 150 m/s
    • motor neurons
  14. Group B fibers
    • intermediate diameter
    • lightly myelinated
    • 15 m/s
    • preganglionic autonomic fibers
  15. Group C fibers
    • smallest diameter
    • unmyelinated
    • 1 m/s
    • postganglionic autonomic fibers
  16. basal nuclei
    islands of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres
  17. lentiform nucleus
    formed by the putamen and globus pallidus
  18. corpus striatum
    formed by the lentiform nuclei and caudate nuclei
  19. what causes Parkinson's disease?
    a degeneration of the dopamine-releasing neurons of the substantia nigra. 
  20. superior enlargement
    the cervical enlargement
  21. inferior enlargement
    the lumbar enlargement
  22. sclera function
    • protects and shapes the eyeball
    • gives a study site the attachment of eye muscles
  23. function of cornea
    • lets light into eye
    • plays a part in the light-bending apparatus of the eye
  24. how does retinal detachment cause blindness?
    • Retinal detachment is when the pigmented and neural layers separate, allowing the jellylike vitreous humor to seep between them.
    • This deprives the photoreceptors of their nutrient source. 
  25. where is the lateral geniculate nucleus located?
    the thalamus. helps process vision.
  26. where is the superior colliculi located?
    • the diencephalon
    • processes vision
  27. what is myopia? how to cure it?
    • nearsightedness
    • use concave lenses
    • distant objects are focused in front of the retina, rather than on it
  28. what is hyperopia? how to cure it?
    • farsightedness
    • use convex lenses
    • nearby objects are focused behind the retina.
  29. maculae
    • equilibrium receptors found in the saccule and utricle
    • respond to the pull of gravity and report on changes of head position
  30. cristae ampullares
    • found in the ampulla at the ends of semicircular ducts
    • respond to rotational/angular movements
  31. medial geniculate nucleus
    the auditory relay center in the thalamus
  32. basilar membrane
    the floor of the cochlear duct which supports the organ of Corti. 
  33. tectorial membrane
    the gel-like membrane that stereocilia are trapped in
  34. 3 nerves that carry info from the tongue to the brain
    Facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve. 
  35. what is the thalamus relay center for taste?
    ventral posterior medial nucleus
  36. name the types of papillae and their location on the tongue.
    • Circumvallate (largest and most posterior)
    • Foliate (elongated, towards side)
    • Fungiform (large, throughout tongue)
  37. what are olfactory hairs
    the hairs on ciliated dendrites.
  38. olfactory relay center in the thalamus
    • medial dorsal nucleus
    • relays to frontal and temporal lobe
  39. bundles of what type of axons form the olfactory nerve?
    bipolar cells
  40. bundles of what type of axons form the olfactory tract?
    mitral cells - second order neurons
  41. biogenic amine hormones
    composed of the amino acid tyrosine
  42. steroid hormones
    composed of cholesterol
  43. what's responsible for the emotional connection to smell?
  44. 4 types of supporting cells in the CNS
    • oligodendrocytes
    • astrocytes - forming BBB
    • ependymal cells - line ventricles. circulate CBF. 
    • microglia
  45. 2 types of supporting cells in PNS
    • Satellite cells - control chemical environment of cell bodies.
    • Schwann cells
  46. why can't severed axons in the CNS regenerate?
    • microglia fail to properly clean up damage
    • no neurilemma to form a regeneration tube
    • presence of growth-inhibiting proteins
  47. absolute refractory period
    when the neuron can't respond to any stimuli, no matter how strong
  48. relative refractory period
    an exceptionally strong stimulus can reopen the Na+ channels allow another action potential to be generated
  49. discuss pupillary dilation
    • activation of sympathetic nervous system
    • viewing far objects
  50. discuss pupillary constriction
    • activation of parasympathetic nervous system
    • viewing close objects
  51. function of the cells in the pigmented layer
    • contains melanin which prevents light from scattering inside the eye
    • contains vitamin A required for the light-absorbing pigment, retinal.
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Anatomy Final Exam
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