Nervous System

  1. Nervous System
    The master controlling and communicating system of the body
  2. Functions of the nervous system (3)
    • Sensory input (stimuli)
    • Integration (interpretation)
    • Motor output (response)
  3. The two principal cells of the nervous system
    Supporting Cells

  4. Supporting Cells
    Cells that surround and wrap neurons

    Not invovled in communication and controlling
  5. Neurons
    Excitable cells (neuroglia and glial cells) that transmit electrical signals.

    Signaling cells can react
  6. Astrocytes (stars)
    Most abundant, versatile (has many functions), and highly branched glial cells
  7. Function of Astrocytes
    • Without astrocytes neurons cannot live
    • Support and brace neurons
    • Anchor neurons to the nutrient support
    • Guide migration (brings neursons together to make tracks)
    • Control the chemical environment
  8. Microglia
    Glia cell, small, ovoid cells with spiny processes
  9. Phagocytes
    Monitor the health of neurons

    Eat foreign bugs that come into the brain
  10. Ependymal Cells
    Glial cell, line the cavities in brain
  11. Oligodendrocytes
    Covers neurons tail in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
  12. Schwann Cells (neurolemmocytes)
    Surround neurons tail in the PRN (peripheral nervous system)
  13. Satellite Cells
    Surround neuron cell bodies with ganglia
  14. Nerve Cells
    Structural units of the nervous system

    Composed of body, axon, and dendrites

    Amitotic (dont divide) long lived

    No centrioles

    Has well developed Nissl bodies (rough ER)
  15. Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
    Deteration of Schwann Cells

    Autoimmune Disease
  16. Node of Ranvier (Neurofibral Nodes)
    Gabs in the myelin sheath between adjacent Schwann cells

    Distribute elecity to the next node

    Increases speed
  17. Saltatory Conduction
    Jumping of electrical activity from node to node
  18. Action Potentials are triggered....
    Only at the nodes and jump from onbe node to the next
  19. Voltage-gated Na+ channels are concentrated at
    In the gaps between the nodes
  20. Multipolar neurons
    Three or more process (multidirection)
  21. Bipolar neuron
    Two processes (2 directions)
  22. Unipolar neuron
    Single, short process (1 direction)
  23. The three functional neurons
    • Sensory (afferent)
    • Motor (efferent)
    • Interneurons (association neurons)
  24. Sensory (afferent) neurons
    transmits stimuli to toward the CNS

    Stimuli to brain
  25. Motor (efferent) neurons
    Carries impulse away from the CNS
  26. Intermeurons (association neurons)
    • Shuttle signals through the CNS pathways
    • In spinal cord
  27. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Composed of the brain and spinal cord
  28. Cephalization
    Formation of the brain in uterus/fetal
  29. Three parts of the brain
    • Cerebal hemispheres
    • Cerebellum
    • Brain Stem
  30. Cerebral Hemispheres
    Make up 83% of the brain

    Contains peaks (gyri) and shallow vallies (sulci)
  31. Cerebral Cortex
    Outside of the cerebral hemisphere
  32. Brain Stem
    Consists of midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

    Controls automatic behaviors necessary for survival
  33. Cerebellum
    Makes up 11% of the brain's mass

    Plays a fole in language and problem solving

    Center of balacing

    Ceremellum Ataxia- cannot move
  34. Meninges
    Three layers that surround the brain and spinal cord
  35. The three connective tissue membraines that lie external to the CNS
    • Dura mater
    • Arachnoid mater
    • Pia mater
  36. Blood-brain barrier
    Shields the brain from harmful substances.

    Consist of three layers and fluid
  37. Two things that can pass through the blood-brain barrier
    • Menigits
    • Enseflities
  38. Three functions of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    Prevents brain from crushing

    Protects the CNS from trama

    Nourishes the brain and carries chemical signals
  39. Vertebral column
    Encloces the CNS tissue
  40. Spinal Nerves are located in the________ and contains____pairs.
    Peripheral Nervous System

  41. Epidural Space
    Space between the vertebrae and tghe dural mater and it is filled with fat and a network of veins
  42. Paralysis
    Loss of motor function
  43. Transection
    Stright horizontal break of the spinal cord, leads to paraplegia and quadripelgia
  44. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    Outside the brain and spinal cord

    Toward the side
  45. Autonomic Nervous System
    Cannot control, involuntary
  46. Somatic Nervous System
    Controled, voluntery
  47. Two parts of the Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
  48. Parasympathetic
    Mobilizes the body during extreme situations
  49. Sympathic
    Performs maintenance activties and conserves body energy
  50. How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
  51. The 31 pairs of spinal nerves
    • 8 cervival
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacral
    • 1 coocylgeal
  52. Reflex Arc
    rapid, predictable motor responce to a stimulus
Card Set
Nervous System
Nervous System