1. The three types of muscles
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
  2. Four characteristics of muscle tissue
    • Excitability/irribility
    • Contractility
    • Extensibility
    • Elasticity
  3. Two myofilaments used for muscle contraction
    • Actin
    • Myosin
  4. Sacrolemma
    Muscle plasma membrane (ouside layer)
  5. Sacroplasm
    Cytoplasm of a muscle cell
  6. Three prefixes used for muscle
    • Myo
    • Mys
    • Sacro
  7. Skeletal muscle tissue
    Muscles that attach to and cover the bony skeleton
  8. Stripes on skeletal muscle are called
  9. Skeletal muscles are voluntary and involuntray?
  10. What type of muscles are responsbile for over all body movement
    Skeletal muscle
  11. Endomysium
    Covers each muscle fiber/cell
  12. Perimysium
    covers fascicles
  13. Fascicles
    a group of muscle fibers/cells
  14. Epimysium
    Covers the entire muscle (a group of fascicles)
  15. Syncytium
    a group of cells
  16. Sarcoplasm contains...
    • Glycosomes
    • Myoglobin (carries oxygen)
  17. Myofibrils
    Densely packed, rodlike contractile elements (actin and myosin)

    Small rod inside muscle fiber/cell
  18. Sarcomeres
    Smalles contractile unit of a muscle

    The region of a myofibril between 2 successive Z discs
  19. Thin filament
  20. Thick filament
  21. I band contains
  22. A band contains
    Actin and Myosin
  23. H Zone
    Within the A band

    Where the 2 actin filaments DO NOT meet
  24. Z Discs
    Proteins (Connectins) that anchors the thin filament (actin) and connects myofibrils to one another
  25. M line
    contains Desmin making it appear darker
  26. Titin
    and elastic protein
  27. The structure of a myosin molecule
    Rod-like tail and two globular heads
  28. Tails of a myosin molecule
    two interwoven, heavy polypeptide chains
  29. Heads of a myosin molecule
    two smaller, light polypeptide chains called cross bridges and are attached with ATP
  30. Structure of a actin molecule
    Helical polymer of globular subunits called G actin that are connected by tropomyosin
  31. Tropomyosin
    Connects the globular subunits of a actin molecule
  32. Active Sites
    Where myosin heads attach to the actin molucle during contraction
  33. Troponin
    Holds together the two strains of globular subunits in a actin molecule
  34. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
    Regulates calcium levels

    Surrounds each myofibril
  35. Neuromuscular Junction
    Where the muscle and nerve meet, NO physical contact
  36. Axonal Endings
    Are at the end of each nerve, and have small sacs (synaptic vesicles) that contain the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (ACh)
  37. Motor End Plate
    Specific part of the sacrolemma that contains ACh receptors and helps form the neuromuscular junction
  38. Linking the electrical signal to the contraction is...
    Excitation-contraction coupling at the neuromuscular junction
  39. Smooth Muscle
    One nucleus


    Composed of spindle-shaped fibers

    Lacks neuromuscular juntions
  40. Varicosities
    Nerve endings of the smooth muscle
  41. Smooth Muscle is orgranized into...
    Two layers (Longitudinal and circular) of closely apposed fibers
  42. Diffuse Juntions
    Wide synaptic clefts where varicosities release neurotransmitters
  43. Caveoli
    souchlike infolding in plasma membrane of the smooth muscle
  44. In smooth muscles Actin and myosin are arranged
    diagonolly causing smooth muscle to contract into a corkscrew manner
  45. Cardiac Muscle
    Between skeletal and smooth muscle

    is straited like skeletela but not voluntary
  46. Inercalated Disks
    Connect the cells which allowes the hear beat like one unit
  47. Muscle Fatigue
    Inability to contract
  48. Muscle Tone
    Constantly slightly contracted

    Keeps muscles firm, healthy, and ready to respond to stimulus
  49. Myoblast
    Embryonic mesoderm where muscle tissue develops
  50. Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle becomes
    Amitotic (stops diving) but then lengthen and thicken
  51. Smooth Muscle has good
    Regnerative ability
  52. Woman's skeletal myscle makes up ____of their body mass
  53. Men's skeletal muscle makes up _____of their body mass.
  54. Sarcopenia
    not a disease, aging process
  55. By have 80 _____ muscle mass is lost
  56. Isometric Contraction
    Increasing muscle tension (muscle does not shorten during contraction)
  57. Isotonic Contraction
    Decreasing muscle lenth (muscle shortens during contraction)
  58. Threshold
    the minimal amount of stimulis which gets a response
  59. Muscle Twitch
    The responce of a muscle to a single, brief threshold stimulis
  60. Summation
    all muscle bundles recruited to have multipul twitches
  61. Wave summation
    no time for muscle to relax before next response
  62. Incomplete tetanus
    Constent stimuli (eye twtiching)
  63. Complete Tetanus
    Charlie horse
  64. Temperal Summation
    one type of stimulis responding to ONE stimulis
  65. Spacial Summation
    responding to MANY different stimulis
  66. Treppe
    The Staircase Effect
    No waves, regular stimulation

    Increase contraction in response to multiple stimuli of the same strength
  67. Five arrangements of Fascicles
    • Circular
    • Covergent
    • Parallel
    • Fusiform
    • Pennate
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