1. Types of change
    • technical- changing basic methods organizations use to deliver HC services
    • product or service- intro new product and service by the organization 
  2. types of change
    administrative, structural or strategy- concerned with the managerial or administrative activities of the organization 

    human resources- attempts to change attitudes, behavior, or skills of employees
  3. Process of change
    • awareness- there is a gap of what is happening and what should be happening
    • identification-address gap
    • implementation-carry out change
    • institutionalization- integrate change in the organization 
  4. 6 stages of individual behavior change 
    • pre contemplation
    • contemplation
    • preparation
    • actions
    • maintenance
    • termination 
  5. 8 stages to implement change
    set the stage
    create a sense of urgency 

    pull together a guiding team 
  6. 8 stages to implement change
    decide what to do 
    develop the change vision and strategy- clarify how the future will be different from the past
  7. 8 stages to implement change
    Make it happen
    communicate for understanding and buy in- need to do repeatedly and to as many employees as possible

    empowering others to act- remove obstacles
  8. 8 stages to implement change
    produce short term wins to see progress

    dont let up! needs to happen everyday to take place
  9. 8 stages to implement change
    make change stick
    create new culture 
  10. Change critical points
    • change is not a linear process
    • change agents may have to go back to an earlier stage
    • change process is impacted by a complex set of interacting factors
    • steps of change overlap
    • change is inevitable
  11. Dealing with negative reactions to change
    • types: rational
    • personal
    • emotional 
  12. rational reation
    • misunderstanding of details of plan
    • the belief that the change is unnecessary
    • disbelief in planned changes effectiveness
    • expectations of negative consequences
  13. fixing rational reaction
    • explain plan in greater detail and with more clarity
    • project what could happen if change NOT introduced
    • involve employees in quality improvement teams
  14. personal reaction
    • fear of job loss
    • anxiety over future
    • resentment at implied criticism of performance
    • fear of interference from above
  15. fixing personal reaction
    • stress much improved job prospects for everyone in the future
    • present aspects of the plan which people are likely to find positive and exciting
    • accept managements responsibility for pas failures
    • show anticipated benefits of change
  16. emotional reatcion
    • active or passive resistance to change in general
    • lack of involvement
    • apathy towards initiatives
    • shock
    • mistrust of motives behind change
  17. fixing emotional reaction
    • show why the old ways no longer work
    • explain the reasons for change
    • organizae times and meetings to communicate the details of the chage
    • promise involvement of employees
    • be honest and answer all question s
  18. 6 sources of resistance to change
    • habits
    • social consideration
    • security
    • economic implications
    • frear of unknown
    • lack of awareness
  19. 6 methods for controlling resistance to change
    • education and communication
    • participation and invovement
    • facilitation and support
    • negotiation and agreement
    • manipulation
    • coercion
  20. education and communication 
    good if employees lack info or have inaccurate information

    advantage- once persuaded will help

    disadvantage- time consuming with so many people
  21. participation and involvement
    good if managers need input from employees or they have power

    advantage- those who participate are committed, relevant info they have will be integrated

    disadvantage- time consuming and inappropiate
  22. facilitation and support
    good if employees are resisting because of adjustment problems

    advantage- no other approach works

    disadvantage- time consuming, expensive and can still fail
  23. negotiation and agreement
    good if someone may lose out in a change and that person has power

    advantage- easy to avoid major resistance

    disadvantage- too expensive and time consuming
  24. manipulation
    good if no other options 

    advantage- quick and cheap

    disadvantage- can lead to future problems if people feel manipulated
  25. coercion
    good if short on time and management has most of power

    advantage- gast

    disadvantage- risky if people are mad at managemetn 
  26. Thinking in change
    thinking differently can help change behavior and lead to better results 

    think logically to change peoples thinking
  27. feeling in change
    feeling different;y can change the behavior even more and can lead to better results

    visual experiences, need to change how people feel 
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