final lab exam!

  1. What is the function of the thyroid cartilage?
    • Made of hyaline cartilage
    • Looks like a shield
    • Ligament to hyoid
    • laryngeal prominence (adam's apple)
    • Ant. anchor for vocal cords and epiglottis
  2. What is the function of the cricoid cartilage?
    • Hyaline cartilage ring
    • Ligament to thyroid cartilage and to trachea
  3. What is the function of the epiglottis?
    • Elastic cartilage
    • Covers larynx while swallowing
  4. What is the function of the arytenoid cartilages?
    • Posterior view
    • Hyaline cartilage
    • Vocal cords anchor posteriorly 
  5. What is the function of the corniculate cartilages?
    • Elastic cartilage 
    • Move with arytenoids
  6. What is the function of the cuneiform cartilages?
    • Elastic cartilage buried in lateral walls
    • Supports soft tissue in lateral walls
  7. What is the trachea composed of?
    • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar ET with GCs and lamina propria
    • Submucosa is WFCT with tracheal glands which secrete mucus
    • Tracheal rings are C shaped hyaline cartilage. Esophagus is posterior to this. 
    • Trachealis muscle is smooth MT which helps us cough
    • Adventicia
  8. Why does the trachea have C shaped cartilage rings?
    C shaped rings prevent collapse of trachea.
  9. What does the trachea serve?
    Both lungs
  10. What do the primary bronchus serve?
    1 lung-left or right
  11. What do the secondary bronchus serve and how many are there?
    • A lobe
    • 5 of them-2 on the left and 3 on the right
  12. What do the tertiary bronchus serve and how many are there?
    • Bronchopulmonary segments
    • 18-20 (always 10 on right)
  13. What zone are the bronchi part of?
    Conducting zone of the respiratory system
  14. What zone are the alveoli part of?
    Respiratory zone of the respiratory system
  15. What are the different layers of the trachea?
    • Mucosa-Pseudostratified ciliated columnar ET with Gcs
    • Tunica submucosa-thick with many tracheal glands (seromucous)
    • Hyaline cartilage rings
    • Trachealis muscle-Smooth MT
  16. What are type I cells and what is their function?
    • Simple squamous ET cells
    • Fxn: form respiratory membrane with endothelium of the capillary for gas exchange
  17. What are type II cells and what are their functions?
    • Septal cells
    • Secrete pulmonary surfactant-breaks surface tension of water so alveoli don't stick
  18. What are alveolar macrophages and what is their function?
    • Dust cells
    • Hang out in lumen
    • Phagocytize cells
  19. What occurs when someone has emphysema?
    Macrophages destroy lung tissue
  20. What is the function of the renal pelvis?
    Funnels urine to the ureter. Sits in renal sinus
  21. What will you find in the hilus of the urinary bladder?
    Renal artery, vein and ureter
  22. Describe fluid flow in the kidneys
    • Urine exits renal papillae
    • Minor calyx
    • Major calyx
    • Renal pelvis
    • ureter
    • Urinary bladder
    • Urethra
    • toilet/bush/etc.
  23. What are the different uriniferous tubules and what are their functions?
    • Nephrons: filters blood and modifies filtrate
    • Collecting duct: gathers filtrate from nephron and may modify it under certain conditions-urine exits here
  24. What are the different capillary beds in the urinary system and how do they differ?
    • 1st bed: glomerulus for filtration-not gas exchange!
    • 2nd bed: peritubular capillaries or vasa recta for gas exchange and selective reabsoprtion and secretion
  25. What does the renal corpuscle contain?
    • Bowmans capsule:
    • -Parietal layer: simple squamous ET 
    • -Visceral layer:podocytes with filtration slits
    • -Capsular space
    • Glomerulus
  26. What is the structural difference between the DCT and PCT?
    • PCT: simple cuboidal ET with tall microvilli for selective reabsorption of solutes and water into peritubular capillaries
    • DCT: Simple cuboidal ET with no modifications. Selective secretion from peritubular capillaries
  27. What are the different types of nephrons?
    • Cortical nephrons: shorter and most abundant
    • Juxtamedullary nephonrs: longer 
  28. What is the difference between the ascending limb of loop of Henle and descending limb?
    • Descending: simple squamous ET. Water exits by osmosis
    • Ascending: simple cuboidal ET. Reabsorption of Na and Cl ions
  29. What does the juxtaglomerular apparatus consist of?
    Where DCT contacts afferent arteriole-macula densa
  30. What is the function of the macula densa cells?
    Monitor ion filtrate and they stimulate juxtaglomerular cells of afferent arteriole to secrete renin
  31. What is the function of the hormone renin?
    Increases blood volume/ion concentration
  32. What is the structure and function of the collecting duct?
    • Simpel cuboidal-> simple columnar ET
    • Last chance to reabsorb water if needed
  33. How does the pituitary gland work on the collecting duct?
    • Pituitary releases ADH if you're dehydrated
    • Tells collecting duct ET to let water leave and enter the peritubular capillaries
    • Alcohol inhibits this
  34. What is the structure of the urinary bladder?
    • Mucosa: transitional ET and lamina propria (highly vascularized)
    • Submucosa-WFCT
    • Muscularis: detrusor muscle. Longitudinal, circular, longitudinal
    • Adventitia-areolar CT
  35. What is the structure of the ureter?
    • Mucosa: star shaped lumen. Transitional ET with lamina propria
    • Submucosa: none
    • Muscularis: 2 layers for peristalsis-inner longitudinal outer circular
    • Adventitia-areolar CT
  36. What is the function of the trigone?
    Directs urine to internal urethral orifice
  37. What are the sphincters of the urinary bladder?
    • Internal urethral sphincter: smooth MT surrounds internal urethral orifice
    • External urethral sphincter: skeletal MT part of urogenital diaphragm
  38. What is the structure and function of the urethra?
    • Delivers urine out through the external orifice
    • ET changes alon length from transitional to non keratinized stratified squamous ET
    • Smooth MT in wall is for peristalsis
  39. How do male and female urethras differ?
    • Female: short and straight
    • Male: long and more convuluted
    • 3 regions:
    • 1. Prostatic urethra
    • 2. Membranous urethra
    • 3. Spongy/Penile urethra
  40. What is the function of the scrotum?
    • Provides cooler environment for normal sperm development
    • Contains dartos muscle
  41. What is contained in the testes?
    • Seminiferous tubules
    • Tunican albuginea
    • Tunica vaginalis-outer parietal layer and inner visceral layer
  42. What is the function of seminal vesicles?
    secretes seminal fluid
  43. what is the function of Cowper's glands?
    secretes pre ejaculatory fluid
  44. what is the function of the prostate gland?
    secrete seminal fluid
  45. where will you find cremaster muscle and dartos muscle?
    Smooth MT in subQ of the scrotum
  46. what is the function of leydig/interstitial cells?
    Secrete testosterone
  47. what is the function of sertoli cells?
    • Support seminiferous tubules
    • Form blood-testis barrier
    • These are the "nurse" cells
  48. what is the structure of the epididymis?
    Pseduostratified columnar ET with stereocilia. These can reabsorb sperm. Fxn. sperm storage and maturation
  49. what is the function of the vas defrens?
    SPerm transport (peristalsis)
  50. where do the seminal vesicles secrete into?
    ejaculatory duct
  51. where do the cowper's gland secrete into?
    into penile urethra
  52. where does the prostate gland secrete into?
    prostatic urethra
  53. what is the function of the crura?
    anchor penis to pubis
  54. what is the function of the bulb of the penis?
    anchors it to urogenital diaphragm
  55. what are the "nurse" cells of the female reproductive system?
    Granulosa cells
  56. what is the function of the zona pellucida?
    Protective glycoprotein coating
  57. what is the corona radiata?
    granulosa cells surrounding the zona pellucida
  58. what is the function of thecal cells?
    outermost granulosa cells produce androgen and pass it to granulosa cells which convert it to estrogen
  59. what is the function of the corpus luteum if there is a pregnancy and if there is not?
    • Is yes: secretes estrogen and progesterone until placenta takes over
    • If not: degenerates and becomes corpus albicans
  60. what is the function of the uterine tubes?
    • fertilization and transport
    • Simple ciliated columnar ET
  61. what are the different layers of the uterus?
    • 1. Perimetrium (outermost) serosa continuous with broad ligament
    • 2. Myometrium-smooth MT. thick.
    • 3. Endometrium-implantation. Highly vascular mucosa. SPiral arterioles will stretch. Simple columnar ET, lamina propria, uterine glands (secrete glycogen rich mucus)
  62. what are the different layers of the endometrium?
    • Stratum functionalis: closer to lumen. Shed with menses
    • Stratum basalis: not shed. Replenishes stratum functionalis
  63. what is the structure of the vagina?
    • rugae with non keratinized stratified squamous ET
    • Fornix is the space surrounding the cervix
    • Paraurethral glands (anterior wall)
  64. what is the structure and function of the clitorus?
    • FXn: sensation
    • 3 erectile masses: 2 corpora cavernosa, 2 crura that anchor to pubis, bulb of vestibule splits and surrounds deep to vestibule
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final lab exam!
Anat. final lab exam King