Nutrition Final 3.txt

  1. Function of Iron (Fe)
    • Blood Formation
    • (Fe is part of hemoglobin  血红蛋白 which is part of the Red Blood Cell which is invloved in blood formation)
  2. Heme Iron can be found in
    Red meat
  3. Meat is the most biologically available food source of
  4. enriched bread is a source of
    Iron (non-heme iron)
  5. milk is a poor souce of
    Fe and Vitamin C
  6. Factors affecting Iron Absorption
    Body's need for iron (large dose with ↓ need = ↓ absorption)
  7. Caffeine ( from coffee, tea, cola ) ↓ ________?
    • decreases Fe absorption
    • consume no more than 24 total ounces per day
  8. The meal with most iron absorption
    red meat, sources of vitamin C, no caffeine

    Sources of Vitamin C (starwberries and peppers)
  9. Woman in child bearing years have ↑______ so they are at ↑ risk of ________ ( _______  )?
    have ↑ Fe needs so they are at an increased risk of Fe deficientAnemia  )
  10. Fe deficient is _____ ?
    Anemia (贫血)
  11. Iron deficiency may result from
    • decreased Fe in the diet
    • blood loss
    • decreased absorption
  12. Symptoms of Anemia(Iron Deficiency)
    • ↓ red blood cells (红血球) 
    • fatigue (疲劳)
    • apathy (暮气--散漫)
  13. the iodization of NaCl (salt) has ↓
    the incidence of goiter (癭病-- 甲状腺肥大)
  14. Iodine Deficiency is what kind of disease
  15. Goiter (瘿病)
    swelling (肿胀) of the neck as a result of the enlargement of the thyroid gland (甲状腺肥大)
  16. decreased iodine can cause
    enlargement of the thyroid gland
  17. ↓ Zinc = ↓ ________
    ↓ taste acuity 味觉敏锐(hypogeusia)味觉衰退
  18. Function of Zinc
    • reproduction 生殖
    • affects taste 影响味道
    • wound healing伤口愈合
    • growth 生长
    • zinc acts in metallogenzymes 作为金属酶
  19. Food Sources of Zinc 锌
    meat, seafood, and whole grains
  20. Function of Selenium 硒
    • functions as antioxidant along with
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin E
    • Beta carotene
  21. 4 antioxidants? 是
    Selenium, Vitamin C, Vitamin E , and beta carotene
  22. Function of Boron 硼
    prevents bone loss in post menopausal women 防止绝经后妇女的骨质流失
  23. Functions of Vitamin C
    • Collagen formation 胶原蛋白的形成
    • ↓ Cancer and Common Cold 抗癌症和缓解感冒
    • ↓Formation of Nitrosamines减少亚硝胺的形成
    • Facilitates the mineral (Fe) 促进矿物质(铁)
    • Antioxidant 抗氧化
  24. Collagen
    • a cement 水泥 like protein substance that binds cells together
    • part of connective tissue 结缔组织
  25. Vitamin C facilitates the mineral, ______, to be absorbed ?
  26. Vitamin C may alleviate the perceived severity of the symtoms of a cold
  27. Vitamin C helps to decrease the formation of nitrosamines亚硝胺
    nitrosamines - cancer causing agents found in cured meats 腊肉
  28. Cured meats (source of nitrosamines)  8 个
    Bacon, Ham, Hotdog, Polony, Pepperoni, Sausage, Scrapple, Salami
  29. Food Source of Vitamin C
    • Cabbage family vegetables (broccoli)
    • Cantaloupe
    • Citrus 柑橘
    • Kale 羽衣甘蓝
    • Peppers
    • Potatoes
    • Strawberries
    • Tomatoes
  30. Best Source of Ascorbic Acid (抗坏血酸) & Beta Carotene (β-胡萝卜素)
    Fruit & Vegetables
  31. Deficiency of Vitamin C is called _________ disease
    Scurvy (坏血病)
  32. Symtoms of Scurvy (坏血病)
    • Swollen Gums 牙龈红肿
    • Bruise easily 容易挫伤, 青肿
    • Reopening of old wounds (not enough collagen) 重开旧的伤痛(没有足够的胶原蛋白)
  33. Functions of Folate (Folic Acid, Folacin) 叶酸
    • 1. prevents and cures megaloblastic or macrocytic anemia (大细胞性贫血) normal nerve functioning. cells are immature  (细胞是未成熟的)
    • 2. involved in blood formation
  34. Blood Formation (4个)
    • Folate         (叶酸)
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin B12
  35. Folate need ↑ when _________  ↑(during_____ & ______)
    • Blood volume ↑
    • during pregnancy & lactation
  36. Women in child bearing (生育) years need folate to
    prevent the childhood birth defect, spina bifida (脊柱裂)
  37. 1998, FDA mandates folate to be added to ______ products to ↓ the incidence of ____
    all grain products to decrease the incidence of  spina bifida
  38. Food Sources of Folate
    • Concentrated Sources:     source of Vitamin B (wheat germ小麦胚芽, liver肝, kidney肾, yeast酵母, and mushrooms蘑菇)
    • Significant Sources:    Fruits and Vegetables
  39. Functions of Cobalamin (B12)
    • 1.) prevents and treats pernicious anemia (恶性贫血) without normal nerve functioning. cells are large and immature (细胞是未成熟的)
    • 2) involved in blood formation with  B6, Vitc, Floate, and B12
  40. 4 Vitamins involved in blood formation ?
    • Folate         (叶酸)
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin B12
  41. Food Sources of B12
    • animal origin, with  meat    bing the best source
    • roast beef, chicken, steak, turkey
  42. Strict vegetarians (vegan) must supplement with
  43. what 3 Vitamins are toxic when consumed in large amounts  (3个)
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
  44. Functions of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
    primarily in protein metabolism (involved in transamination and deamination)
  45. Fat Soluble Vitamins (4个)
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin K

  46. Fat Soluble Vitamins are affected by
    • impaired fat digestion 脂肪消化受损
    • bile 胆汁
  47. Precursor (前兆) of Vitamin A
    Carotene (Yellow plant pigment) 胡萝卜素(黄色植物的色素)
  48. Functions of Vitamin A
    Vision - allows vision to dim light昏暗的灯光下 (Prevent Xeropthelmia - night-blindness 夜盲症)
  49. Carotene 胡萝卜素 stored in the
    Fat Tissue 脂肪组织 & Adrenal Glands 肾上腺

    maybe responsible for the yellowish tinge to the skin when grearter amounts are consumed and accessed or stored
  50. Carotenoids are phytochemicals (植物化学物质) which ↓
    ↓ the risk of heart desease and cancers
  51. Deeper yellow, orange and green = ↑
    Vitamin A and Carotene
  52. Q: which has more Vitamin A?
    1. Corn vs. Sweet Potato
    2. Iceberg lettuce vs. Romaine lettuce
    • 1. Sweet Potato
    • 2. Romaine lettuce
  53. Deficiency of Vitamin A causes
    • changes in the skin
    • Form of Dermatitis = Folliculitis 毛囊炎
    • changes in the eyes (cornea) 角膜
    • night blindness
  54. Examples of Deeper yellow, orange and green  (↑ Vit A & Carotene)
    • romaine lettuce
    • sweet potatoes
    • carrot
    • pumpkin
    • tomatoes
    • cantolope
    • papaya
    • mango
    • peach
  55. example of Bio-technology (bio-engineer food and genetic modified food)
    Golden rice
  56. Vitamin A would be toxic if consume too much
  57. precursor in the _________ is converted by ________ to make Vitamin D
    Skin                   UV Rays
  58. Vitamin D also known as the ______________
    Sunshine Vitamin
  59. Elderly are at an ↑ risk of Vitamin D deficiency due to ___________ & __________  (2个原因)
    • ↓ exposure to the sun
    • ↓ milk intake
  60. children who fail to have a good ____________ = rickckets
    calcium / phosphrous ration in bone
  61. Adult  Rickets is called ___________ ?
    Ostomalacia (软骨病)
  62. Calcium requirement for 19-24 year olds:
    1300 mg
  63. Vitamin E neutralizes free radicals preventing them (自由基) to increase cellular damage (细胞损伤)
  64. free radicals are formed by  (4)
    • 1. Breathing
    • 2. Pollution
    • 3. Somking
    • 4. UV exposure
  65. Vitamin E as antioxidant to protects oxidation of ___________ which decreases underarm odor (腋臭)
    Fatty Acid
  66. Food Sources of Vitamin E
    Vegetable Oils & Soybean Oils
  67. Deficiencies of Vitamin E shows up in premature infants and in people suffering from malabsorption (Cystic Fibrosis) 囊性纤维化
  68. Sources of Vitamin K
    green leafy vegetables AND from the synthesis of the vitamin by intestinal bacteria

    Spinach & Asparagus provide Vitamin K and Folate
  69. Newborns don't have the bacteria that synthesizes Vit K so___________
    supplement K are recommended
Card Set
Nutrition Final 3.txt
nutrition final