Social Psychology Final

  1. Explicit vs. Implicit Attitudes
    explicit attitudes we can consciously/easily report, implicit attitudes are involuntary,incontrollable, and unconscious
  2. IAT: Implicit Association Test
    a computer simulation which groups pictures with words to test for unconscious prejudice
  3. Mere Exposure Effect
    developing a preference for otherwise neutral things merely because someone is familiar with it
  4. Central vs. Peripheral Route
    critically weighing options and taking in arguments vs. using mental shortcuts and not thinking in order to come to a conclusion
  5. Classical Conditioning
    pairing a neutral object (CS) with an emotional object (US) and the neutral object takes on the same emotional response as the original emotional object
  6. Operant condition
    behavior is learned by being rewarded or punished
  7. Social Learning
    Imitate behaviors you see others rewarded for and avoid behaviors you see others punished for
  8. Implicit Egotism Effect
    we are more positively disposed to things that resemble us 
  9. Social tuning and Need to Beling Theory
    people adapt the actions of those they are close to
  10. Role of Personal Relevance
    we are more likely to pay attention to things that pertain to us
  11. Aspects of the Source that increase persuasion
    • over time you forget who the source was and remember the message
    • authoritative is key
  12. Message that increase persuasion
    • quality argument
    • length is strength
  13. Audience that increase persuasion
    most change occurs at moderate discrepancy
  14. Asch Studies
    judged the length of a line, say aloud which line matched. participants conformed to the clearly wrong majority 37% of the time. All paritcipants accurate when alone.  More accurate when written. Size of group (up to five) unanimity, and difference about wrong answer influenced conformity
  15. Enlightenment Effect
    being aware of a study/bias helps you to not conform to it
  16. Milgram Experiment
    people asked to shock another paritcipant if they got an answer incorrect. Greater the distnace  between authority and participant, the less you comply. Must perceive authority as trustworthy. Feedback from learned. further away learner is the more likely conformity is.
  17. Psychological Distance
    talking on the phone vs face to face, etc. 
  18. Informative vs. Normative Influence
    • Informative: when you judge others interpretations of ambiguous situations as correct because you dont know the answer yourself
    • Normative: Conforming when you do know the right answer to be accepted by your peers
  19. Private v. Public Conformity
    • Private: Informational
    • Public: Normative
  20. Individual Difference on Conformity
    • Gender: more likely to conform to opposite, or in order to confirm gender roles
    • Age: young people more likely to conform than elderly
  21. Cultural Differences in Conformity
    • collectivistic societies more likely to conform to in groups
    • Individualistic societies more likely to conform to out groups
  22. Functions of Group
    Social vs Task
  23. Social Norms
    Implicit/Explicit rules a group has for acceptable behaviors/values/beliefs of its members
  24. Deindividualation
    loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people are unidentifiable (i.e. mob/crowd setting)
  25. Stanford Prison Study (Zimbardo)
    • Zimbardo assigned normal college males to the role of either prison guard or prisoner
    • shows that the influence of social role is prevalent even if people wouldn't previously act aggressively
  26. Abu Ghraid
    • Iraq Prison (2004) guarded by American soldiers who abused Iraqi prisoners
    • Real life zimbardo study
  27. Group cohesiveness
    qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between members
  28. Social Faciltation
    when others are watching, more likely to perform well in tasks you are confident in and when your individual performance can be evaluated
  29. Social Loafing
    group produced reduction in individual output on easy tasks in which contributions are pool
  30. Social Disruption
    worsening of performance in things you are not confident in and when your individual performance can be evaluated
  31. Types of Leaders
    • Transaction: set clear short-term goals and reward people who meet them
    • Transformational: inspire people to focus on common, long term goals
    • Task Oriented: more concerned with getting the job done
    • Relationship Oriented: more concerned with feelings/well being
  32. Contigency Theory of Leadership
    leadership effectiveness depends on both the task vs. relationship orientedness of the leader and on the amount of control and influence that leader has over the group
  33. Great Person Theory
    • key peronality traits tend to make other people better leaders, regardless of situation
    • Traits may include: intelligence, extroversion, confidence, charisma, drive, openness
  34. Need to Belong
    desire to form and maintain close and lasting relationships with others
  35. What people do when they are cut off from social interaction
    social exclusion fires the same neurons as physical pain in your brain
  36. Similarity
    • people tend to be attracted to those who have similarities of any kind
    • Married people are often the same in: intelligence, education, socioeconomic status, and physical attractiveness
  37. Reciprocity
    we like/are attracted to people who like us 
  38. Propinquity
    • familiarity breeds liking. being around someone a lot makes you like them
    • Psychological closeness (sharing common beliefs, etc) makes you like them
  39. Physical Attractiveness
    physical attractiveness is a stronger determinant than simlarity and reciprocity in deermining whether or not people enjoyed a date 
  40. Matching Hypothesis
    people tend to pair up with others who are equally physically attractive
  41. Social Allergy Effect
    partner's annoying habits become more annoying over time
  42. Familiarity
    • we have underlying preference for the familiar and safe over the unfamiliar and potentially dangerous.
    • Familiarity can combine reciprocity/similarity/propinquity
  43. Objective Measures of Beauty
    symmetry and averaged faces
  44. Culturally specific measures of Beauty
    • Third world countries value: weight and pale
    • First world countries value: thinness and tan
  45. Halo Effect
    • what is beautiful is good (Snyder et al., 1977) 
    • Pretty people are also: sociable, assertive, competent, intelligent
  46. Passionate Love
    sexual feelings and intense emotions
  47. Companionate Love 
    trusting and tolerant affection
  48. Attachment Theory
    the attachment styler we learn as infants becomes our working model for what relationships are like
  49. Secure attachment
    easy to get close to partner, trusting of them
  50. Anxious-Ambivalent
    preoccupied with rejection, intense negative emotions, jealousy, constant need for reassurance
  51. Avoidant
    difficult to get close to partner, little intimacy, compulsive self-reliance
  52. Harlow Monkey Study
    recess monkeys prefer to spend time with cloth monkey than the one that feeds it. 
  53. Strange Situation
    • way of determing attachment style in infants
    • look at how an infant reactions in reunion after separation
  54. Sternberg 1988
    intimacy and commitment: you need intimacy (feelings of attachment), passion (sexual attraction) and commitment for a lasting relationship
  55. John Gottman's Research and Advice
    • 5 to 1 compliments to critcism
    • more sex doesn't equal better marriage
    • agree on the frequency of sex
    • show interest in your partner
    • be physically affectionate
    • show you care
    • spend quality time together 
    • maintain loyalty/fidelity
    • handle conflict
  56. Ovulation Effects on Perception of Attractiveness
    women find men who appear more masculine more attractive during ovulation
  57. Evolutionary Explanations for Pro-Social Behavior
    survival of the fittest, help people who help you
  58. Self-Interest pro-social motives
    • helping because you don't want the burden of not helping
    • helping to make yourself look good
  59. Kinship Selection
    behaviors that help a genetic relative are more likely and favored by natural selection
  60. Social Exchange Theory
    • people will help if the benefits outweigh the cost
    • People will help if they can relieve their own distress about not helping
  61. Egoism v Altruism
    helping to increase your own welfare vs helping to seek another's welfare and not expecting anything in return
  62. Bystander Effect
    • the greater number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely one will help. 
    • One Must: notice an event, interpret as an emergency, assume responsibility
  63. Who tends to help more 
    people who are aware of the bystander effect and people who have specialized training
  64. Role of attractiveness in helping behavior
    attractive people get more help
  65. Aggression
  66. Instrumental Aggression
    hurting someone so it will hurt someone they are close to
  67. Hostile Aggression
    hurting someone because you want to inflict pain on them
  68. Gender differences in aggression 
    • men are more aggressive in general but when provoked the genders are equal 
    • men are more physically aggression
    • women are more relationally aggressive
  69. Cultural Differences in aggression
    • east asian cultures lower in physical aggression and violent crime
    • souther states higher in aggression
  70. How we learn aggression
    • positive enforcement (produces desired outcome) 
    • negative reinforcement (stops undesireable outcome, spanking)
  71. Social Learning
    we learn from watching the consequences of others actions
  72. Bobo Doll Study
    little kids who saw adults being aggressive toward a doll and get away with it were likely to be aggressive toward it when the adult left the room
  73. Frustration
    • interrupting a person's progress toward a goal
    • this causes aggression
  74. Catharsis
    belief that 'blowing off steam' or a short, one-term act of aggression will reduce likelihood of future aggression
  75. Role of Social rejection
    • Social Rejection creates aggression
    • Married men commit less violent crimes than unmarried men
  76. Automatic Cognition
    weapons create more aggression by their mere presence
  77. Prejudice 
    negative feelings towards people based on group membership
  78. Discrimination
    negative behaviors towards people based on group membership
  79. Stereotypes
    cognitive beliefs that associate people with certain traits
  80. Outgroup Homogeneity Effect
    we see everyone in our own group as individual people, but everyone in out groups as having the same characteristics
  81. Jigsaw Classroom
    a way of eliminating discrimination by placing children in small elarning groups where students are dependent on one another
  82. Brown Eyes Blue Eyes Experiment
    • Day 1: blue eyed children treated as superior to brown eyed children. assume social roles of majority/minority
    • Day 2: roles reversed. brown eyed children still assume majority but are less hostile because they have experienced being the minority
  83. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
    people have an expecation of what others are like which causes them to treat them that way which in turn causes the person to confirm their original expectations
  84. Stereotype Threat
    apprenhension that one's behavior might confirm their cultural stereotype
  85. Contact Hypothesis
    being around members of an opposite group can make you have better feelings towards them
  86. Ingroup Bias
    automative positive feelings towards people in our in-group (i.e. liking someone you find out is from the same town as you)
Card Set
Social Psychology Final
social final