NDFS 200 final

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    Vitamin A
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    Vitamin D
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    Vitamin E
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    Vitamin K
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    Vitamin C
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    Pantethenuc Acid
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  20. Water Functions
    Temperature regulation

    Solvent for reactions, waste removal       (≥ 600 ml/d)

    • Metabolic reactions – hydrolysis, electron
    • transport

    Lubrication, insulation

    pH maintenance
  21. If a
    solution is hypertonic relative to a cell, how will water move? 
      It will diffuse out of the cell.
  22. K absorption
    • 90%
    • potassium absorbed
  23. K functions
    Fluid balance

    Nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction

    Major cation inside the cell

    Associated with low blood pressure

    Blunts salt sensitivity in African-American men

    Decreases risk of kidney stones
  24. Potassium
    (K) Deficiency
    Deficiency rare, may occur in people using diurectics, alcoholics, or those with eating disorders.

    A DGA 2010 “nutrient of concern”

    Life threatening:  irregular heart beats (arrhythmias)

    muscle cramps/weakness, glucose intolerance
  25. K Sources
    Fruits, juices, vegetables, milk, grains, meats, and dried beans; “whole foods” (intact, unprocessed)
  26. Ca bioavailability
    Normally absorb 25-30% of calcium in food

    Increases to ~60% during time of need (pregnancy, infancy)
  27. Ca functions
    • Bone building, 
    • Blood clotting (vitamin K) 
    • Neurotransmitter release
    • muscle contraction
  28. Calmodulin and cell metabolism
    Regulation of metabolic pathways

    Calmodulin/Ca complex influences activity of enzymes key in metabolic pathways

    e.g. glycogenolysis
  29. Phosphorus Major functions 
     Major ion of intracellular fluid, bone and tooth strength, part of ATP, and other metabolic compounds, acid - base balance 
  30. Phosphorus Dietary sources 
    milk milk products, processed foods, fish, soft drinks, bakery products, meats.  
  31. Phosphorus toxicity
    impairs bone health in people with kidney failure, poor bone mineralization if Ca intake is low
  32. Phosphorus deficiency
    possibility of poor bone maintaince
  33. Magnesium deficiency and toxicity
    Deficiency - women more likely to be low; diuretic users

    Alcoholism, heavy perspiration, long-standing diarrhea or vomiting

    • Develops slowly; rapid heartbeat, hypertension,
    • weakness, muscles spasms, disorientation, nausea, seizures

    May increase risk of osteoporosis

    Toxicity – uncommon

    in kidney failure; in supplement users (diarrhea)

    Weakness, nausea, malaise
  34. Fe Absorption
    in duodenum and upper jejunum

    heme iron:

    Hb Fe (30% of Fe in meat is absorbed)

    crosses mucosal cell membrane whole, released

    non-heme iron:

    Fe (2 to 10% absorption)

    oxidation and reduction

    mucosal block for iron

    Iron recycled from old RBC in liver and spleen
  35. Fe functions
    functional component of hemeoglobin, and other key compounds used in respiration; immune function; cognitive development; energy metabolism
  36. Fe deficiency 
    fatigue on exertion poor immune function anemia 
  37. Fe toxicity 
    GI upset
  38. Zn Functions 
    requires for many enzymes; immune function; growth and development; stabilizes cell membranes and body proteins
  39. Zn deffiiency
    dermititis; diarrehea;decreased appetite and sense of taste; infection; poor growth; and development
  40. Zn sources
    seafood, meat, whole grains
  41. Zn toxicity
    decreased copper absorption, diaherrea, nausea, cramps, depresed immune function, 
  42. Copper function
    aids in iron metabolism; works in antioxidant enzymes and those involved in connective tissue metabolism
  43. copper defcicency
    anemia; low white blood cell count; poor growth.
  44. copper sources
    liver, cocoa, nuts, whole grains, shellfish, legumes 
  45. copper toxicity 
    vommitting, nausea, diarrhea, nervous system and liver disorders
  46. Mn functions 
    cofactor if several enzymes; involved in CHO metabolism and antioxidant protection 
  47. Mn defficiency
    poor growth, skeletal abnormalities
  48. Mn sources 
    nuts, tea, legumes, whole grain cereals 
  49. Mn toxicity 
    nervous system disorders;
  50. I funtions
     component of thyriod hormones that regulate basal metabolsism, growth, and development
  51. I deficiency
    goiter, cretinism
  52. I sources
    salt, saltwater fish, dairy products
  53. I toxcity 
    inhibition of thyroid gland 
  54. Se  functions
    part of an antioxidant system as glutathione peroxidase; activates thyroid hormones
  55. Se deficiency
    keshan disease, reduced thyroid hormone
  56. Se sources 
    meats, eggs, fish, seafood, whole grains, nuts
  57. Se toxicity nausea vomitting, hair loss diarrhea, changes in nails
  58. Cr functions
     enhances isulin action 
  59. Cr deficiency
    glucose intolerance 
  60. Cr sources 
    eggs, liver, whole grains, nuts, mushrooms, processed meats.  
  61. Cr toxicity
    none reported
  62. F function
    inreases resistane of tooth enamel to dental caries; minerilaation of bones/teeth
  63. F defficiency
    dental caries
  64. F sources 
    water toothpaste, dental treatments, tea, seaweed
  65. F toxicity
    fluorosis, mottling, 
  66. Mo functions
    cofactor for several enzymes 
  67. Mo deficiency 
    not known in humans
  68. Mo sources 
    grains, nuts, legumes
  69. Mo toxicity 
    poor growth in animals 
  70. RQ
    RQ = 1.0 for pure carbohydrate

    RQ = 0.7 theoretically for pure fat

    RQ = 0.85 for half carbohydrate, half fat during exercise
  71. BMI
    • Weight (kg)/ height (m)2
    • kg/
Card Set
NDFS 200 final
NDFS 200 final