1. st. anselm
    ontological argument for the logical existence of god
  2. peter abelard
    dialectical method, sic et non
  3. peter lombard
    book of sentences
  4. gratian
  5. fourth lateran council
    everyone must attend mass at least once a year to receive the eucaryst; defines important aspects of the church such as solidifying mass and transubstantiation
  6. thomas aquinas
    reconciled greek and biblical thought; wrote summa theologica
  7. unam sanctam 
    all authority goes through the pope; any authority the king has is a gift of the pope
  8. council of constance
    appoint martin v as pope but martin struggles against the council
  9. petrarch
    father of humanism; model for italian style and lyrical poetry
  10. lorenzo valla
    donation of constantine was forgery
  11. erasmus
    religious toleration; latin and greek editions of the new testament
  12. martin luther
    confronted indulgences; excommunicated by pope leo x
  13. john calvin
    wrote institutes; pastor and brought on calvinism
  14. council of trent
    pretestants were heretics and defined church teachings
  15. investiture controversy
    dispute over who could appoint bishops
  16. dictatus papae
    pope most important authority both religiously and politically; princes had to kiss the feet of the pope; pope could dispose emperors
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