1. Infant vocal tract?
    • shorter VT
    • velum & epiglottis in close proximity
    • VFs have not developed a VL, there are no layers, thick cover, e/ more vasularity
    • Arytenoids are disproportinately large
    • laryngeal position is high
    • hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage are contiguous
  2. Common voice disorders in children?
    • Fund. freq high at infancy (55 Hz) but slowly lowers as ages
    • children may have greater jitter, less vocal control
    • Ps higher than for adults, lower mean airflow rates
    • max phonation times are lower until puberty
  3. Congenital Anomalies:

    ___? soft cartilages, collapse of structures into airway
    surgery if airway is obstructed
    w/o surgery it will resolve on its own
    usually detected at birth
  4. Congenital Anomalies:
    __? narrowing in trachea
    if it involves cartilage and airway is obstructed, surgery is necessary
    if it involves soft tissue only, it may resolve spontaneously
    Subglottocic stenosis
  5. Congenital anomalies?
    • laryngeal Paralyses
    • laryngeal Web
    • Congenital Cysts
    • Vocal Fold Papilloma
  6. Signs of congenital anomalies?
    • stridor
    • dysphonia
    • difficulty breathing
    • abnormal cry
    • coughing, choking
  7. Acquired disorders:
    ___: most common acquired disorder in children- accounts for 50% of acquired disorders?
    __: trauma to RLN
    • VF nodules
    • VF paralysis
    • Larngopharyngeal reflux
  8. Tx of nodules in children?
    ____ approach-

    • conservative - no surgery
    • involve family, teacher
    • ID and modify causal behaviors
    • minimize excessive inappropriate vocal behaviors

    trend- adults who had nodules as children seem to have a higher incidence of voice problems
  9. Geriatric Voice:
    VF characteristics in persons ___?
    what happens?
    > 65 y/o

    • cartilages calcify
    • blood flow decreases
    • lamina propria thickens: less elastin and collagen, more fibrotic tissue
    • atrophy of muscle
    • decreased neuronal firing rates
  10. Geriatric Voice:

    • varies e/ gender
    • pitch higher in males, lower in females
    • hoarseness
    • breathiness
    • decr freq and intensity ranges
  11. Geriactric voice

    • greater Fo variability
    • jitter
    • decr intensity variability
    • slower speaking rate
  12. Geriatric Voice:

    • smaller vital capacity
    • decr lung pressure
    • greater peak airflow and greater air leakage
    • greater open quotient
    • decr MFDR
  13. Geriatric Voice

    • bowing, incomplete closure, posterior gap
    • atrophy and thinning of VFs
    • edema
    • Decr mucosal wave and amplitude of vibration
    • incr VF stiffness
    • incr aperiodicity
  14. Geriatric Voice

    most common disorders?
    • laryngeal cancer (men)
    • VF paralysis (women)
    • Edema
    • Nodules and Polyps

    many voice problems in elderly are not caused by aging (4%) but by disease
Card Set
voice disorders in children and elderly