Biology Final Exam

  1. What factors can cause a population to increase in size? 
    Increase in birth rate compared to death rate and immigration compared to emigration 
  2. What factors can cause a population to decrease in size?
    Increase in death rate compared to birth rate and emigration compared to immigration
  3. What is th difference between abiotic and biotic factors? 
    Abiotic are the nonliving portions of the environment and biotic are the living portions
  4. What type of dispersal pattern is most common? Why is this the most common?
    Clumped is most common, mainly because resources tend to be clumped
  5. Why can't a population have exponential growth indefinitely? 
    Limiting factors affect every population - amount of food/water/space, etc. 
  6. Give an example of a density independent factor.
    • Affects the size of the population regardless of how many individuals
    • Ex: fire, freezing weather, pesticides etc. 
  7. Give an example of a density dependent factor:
    • Affects the size of the population more and more as the population gets larger and larger
    • ex: food supply, water supply, etc. 
  8. How much energy is lost as you move from one trophic level to another? 
    90% is lost. 
  9. What processes return water to the atmosphere in the water cycle? 
    Evaporation and transpiration
  10. You go to KFC and get chicken, a roll and coleslaw. What trophic level are you eating at? 
    2nd (primary consumer) and 3rd (secondary consumer)
  11. What are the 4 major factors that have led to the exponential growth seen in humans? 
    Agriculture, medical advances, improved sanitation, better methods to store and ship food 
  12. Richness and evenness are used to determine the __________ of a community. 
  13. Chemicals (nutrients) are cycled between the _____ and _______ parts of an ecosystem.
    Abiotic and biotic
  14. What organisms help cycle energy through the ecosystem?
    None, energy is not cycled
  15. What is a keystone species? 
    A species that has a disproportionate effect on its community structure/ environment in relation to its abundance. 
  16. How many species are found in a specific niche?
  17. When zebra mussels were accidentally introduced into the Great Lakes the result was the elimination of other mollusks. This is an example of what process? 
    Competitive exclusion
  18. What defense mechanism does the viceroy butterfly use to help avoid predation?
    Butesian mimicy 
  19. What are some of the chemicals that are recycled? 
    Carbon, water, nitrogen, phosphorus
  20. WHat is the source of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? 
    Cellular respiration, burning of wood, burning of fossil fuels. 
  21. What is an example of a lose/lose interaction? 
  22. What is transpiration? 
    The process where plants release water into the atmosphere. 
  23. Where on land is the highest NPP? 
    Near the equator
  24. What causes the dead zone found in the Gulf of Mexico? (the area where no oxygen is present) 
    increased amounts of nutrients, mainly nitrogen
  25. What is meant by overexploitation? 
    Taking more individuals than the population can sustain or replace
  26. What is bycatch? 
    The nontarget species that are caught
  27. What is the biggest threat to biodiversity? 
    Habitat destruction
  28. What are advantages to chemical control of invasive species? 
    Can generally cover a large area quickly and fast results. 
  29. What is the biggest threat to biodiversity? 
    Habitat destruction
  30. What are advantages to chemical control of invaive species? 
    Can generally cover a large area quickly and fast results
  31. What are disadvantages to chemical control of invasive species? 
    May effect nontarget species, may persist in environment, may be toxic to other organisms. 
  32. Give examples of greenhouse gases? 
    CO2, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide
  33. What chemical has probably causes the ozone hole? 
  34. What is the function of the ozone layer? 
    Block most of the UV radiation from reaching the earth's surface
  35. Pollination is an example of an ___________ service.
  36. What are all viruses composed of? 
    Capsid and nucleic acid
  37. What 2 groups of organisms are the most important decomposers?
    Bacteria and fungi
  38. What organisms fix nitrogen? 
  39. What does fixing nitrogen mean? 
    Converting the nitrogen in the air into a form that plants can use. 
  40. Which organisms form mycorrhizae? 
    Plants (their roots) and fungi
Card Set
Biology Final Exam
Unit Four and Comprehensive