Drugs and Society Final

  1. Fermentation products are limited to about __% alcohol because...
    • 14%
    • because higher levels of alcohol kill the yeast.
  2. Fermentation process
    C6H12O6----> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
    sugar ----> ethyl alcohol + carbon dioxide
  3. Beer is made from
    a roasted grain (usually barley) that is combined with water, hops, and yeast
  4. Lager = ___% alcohol
    Ale= ____% alcohol
    • Lager is 4% alcohol
    • Ale is 5% alcohol
  5. Wines are usually made from
    wines are usually made from grapes but any sugar source will do (rice is used for sake)
  6. Unfortified wines = __% alcohol
    Fortified (sherry or port) = __% alcohol
    • Unfortified wines = about 12% alcohol
    • Fortified (sherry or port) = 20-21% alcohol
  7. Distilled Spirits (liquors) result from
    • distilled spirits (liquors) result from distilling fermentation products.
    • Brandy is distilled from wine
    • Rum from sugar cane
    • Vodka from potatoes
    • Gin from grains
  8. Liquors and whiskeys = __% alcohol
    Everclear = __% alcohol
    • Liquors and whiskeys = 40 to 50% alcohol
    • Everclear = 95% alcohol
  9. Absorption
    __% by stomach
    __% by small intestine
    • 20% by stomach
    • 80% by small intestine
  10. Metabolism: the body metabolizes alcohol...
    at a continuous rate which depends on bodyweight, amount drunk, time since last drink, and other factors such as tolerance, age, health, and presence of other drugs
  11. Alcohol is broken down by _______ _______ to Acetaldehyde to _____ ____ finally to Carbon dioxide water and energy
    Alcohol is broken down by Alcohol dehydrogenase to Acetaldehyde to Acetic Acid finally to carbon dioxide water and energy
  12. Antabuse
    stops the metabolic process after acetaldehyde causing excess acetaldehyde to build up making the consumer feel nausious thus its use as a way to stop alcoholic drinking
  13. BAC is
    • blood alcohol content
    • is the measure of the % of alcohol in 100 mls of blood
  14. a 175 pound male on average drinking 5 drinks in 2 hours would have a BAC of _____
    • 0.095 causing him to be legally drunk.
    • the legal limit is 0.08
  15. Alcohol low-dose episodes
    • gastric juices stimulated
    • blood vessel dilation
    • relaxation and disinhibition
    • increased sexual drive
  16. Alcohol high-dose episodes
    • muscular coordination is impaired
    • slurred speech
    • loss of emotional control
    • impaired sexual performance
    • alcohol poisoning (overdose): vomiting, unconsciousness, coma, death, BAC of  0.4 is the threshold for alcohol poisoning
    • hangover: headache, nausea, fatigue, thirst, inability to concentrate, depression
  17. Long-term effects of alcohol
    • liver problems include a condition called fatty liver where the liver becoomes enlarged and cirrhosis where scar tissue replaces normal liver cells
    • heart problems incllude irregular heart rhythms and hypertension
    • brain atrophy and enlarged ventricles are observed. memory loss and dementias result from prolonged heavy drinking
    • loss of libido and erectile disfunction
    • stomach problems include gastritis and ulcers
    • malnutrition. alcoholics receive all their calories form alcohol which contains no vitamins (thiamine), minerals or protein
  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) abnormalities include
    • growth retardation
    • CNS abnormalities
    • structural abnormalities of the head and face
    • delayed intellectual development
  19. FAS
    • greatest damage results from early heavy exposure
    • binge drinking resulting in a high BAC is the most dangerous drinking pattern
Card Set
Drugs and Society Final