Ecology 1

  1. Aristotle's Metaphysics
    "The whole is other than (more than) the sum of it's parts"
  2. Ecology
    the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment
  3. Levels of organization in Ecology
    • Each level is defined by interactions at the level below it (oversimplified)
    • 1. Biosphere
    • 2. Ecosystems
    • 3. Communities
    • 4. Populations
    • 5. Organisms
    • 6. Organ Systems
    • 7. Organs
    • 8. Tissues
    • 9. Cells
    • 10. Organelles
    • 11. Molecules
  4. Biosphere
    • the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems;
    • interacting ecosystems - the whole world - earth, oceans, atmosphere
  5. Ecosystem
    • the communty of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which those organisms interact
    • combination of the biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving)
  6. Community
    a group of populations of different species in an area
  7. Population
    a group of individuals of the same species living in an area
  8. Y = aX1 + bX2 + cX1X2
    • if c = 0; no interaction
    • if c > 0; whole > sum of parts - positive interaction, synergism
    • if c < 0; whole < sum of parts - negative interaction, antagonism
  9. taxa
    • a group of one or more organisms
    • species or genera
  10. macroevolution
    • the broad pattern of evolution over long time spans
    • comparing very different taxa, much of the genome is conserved, and vastly different phenotypes are the result of different gene networks
    • have the same genes, just talking to each other differently
  11. What is Science?
    • An attempt to explain how the universe works
    • What makes such an endeavor "science" is that these explanations must be testable empirically
  12. Phenomenon
    • something in nature that we wish to explain
    • (Why are male birds more colorful?)
    • (Why is Uranus "misbehaving"?)
  13. Hypothesis
    educated guesses of cause and effect (that we cleverly design to explain the phenomenon) (new planet with a particular mass and orbit explains Uranus "misbehaving")
  14. Theory
    • an explanation that is broad in scope, generates new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence
    • the conceptual framework within which our hypotheses are framed (in a paternity test, theory would be Mendel's law) (planets - physical mechanics)
  15. Predictions
    logical deductions of our hypotheses if they're true (predictions must be independent of the data or knowledge that went into formulating our hypotheses) (theory helps us set boundaries for when hypotheses are true or false) (planets - predict when and where this new planet will be in a particular location)
  16. Tests
    • empirical falsification (proving false) or verification (support) of our predictions
    • must be independent of the observations/data or phenomenon that led to our hypotheses (guard against circular reasoning)
    • (planets - point a telescope there and look)
  17. kinds of tests
    • manipulative experiments
    • looking for new data or patterns in nature (looking at fossils to prove evolution) (looking for and finding Neptune because it explained Uranus "misbehaving")
  18. Tinbergen's 4 levels of Analyzing a Phenotypic Trait
    • Causation
    • Ontogeny
    • Survival Value
    • Evolution
  19. Causation
    mechanisms. An analysis of the physiological mechanisms and environmental mechanisms that give rise to a phenotype.
  20. Ontogeny
    development. An analysis of all of the processes between genes and the environment that go into the development of the phenotype. Includes learning
  21. Survival Value
    An analysis of how natural selection acts on the trait in question.
  22. Evolution
    phylogenetic history. For example, do two species share a trait through common ancestry or through convergent evolution?
  23. Types of Knowledge
    • 1. Factual
    • 2. Conceptual
    • 3. Procedural - algorithms for solving problems
    • 4. Metacognition (thinking about thinking)
  24. Levels of Learning
    • 1. Remembering*
    • 2. Understanding*
    • 3. Applying*
    • 4. Analyzing*
    • 5. Evaluating
    • 6. Creating
  25. How does Mendel's Law of Segregation falsify the hypothesis of blending inheritance?
    • In 4 O'Clocks, cross a red and a white and get 4 pinks
    • Cross a pink with a pink and get 1 red, 2 pink, 1 white
Card Set
Ecology 1
Day 1