ENVS348 Review

  1. What are the 4 categories of impurities in water?
    • 1. TDS (Total dissolved solids)
    • 2. TSS (Total suspended solids)
    • 3. O&G (Oil and Grease)
    • 4. DO (Dissolved Organics)
  2. Define potable water
    Water that is suitable for drinking
  3. Define aquifer
    A subsurface zone of trapped water
  4. Name some sources of water
    • Surface water: ocean, rivers, lakes
    • Land surface water: snow, ice caps, rainfall
    • Groundwater: wells, aquifers, water table
  5. What 4 questions should you ask when considering water treatment?
    • 1. Where does the water come from?
    • 2. What type of water do we have?
    • 3. What do we need the water for?
    • 4. What are the treatment options?
  6. What separates TDS from TSS?
    • TDS has a particle size <0.45um, while TSS is greater
    • TSS is organic and inorganic; TDS is just inorganic
  7. Parameters used to define water quality
    Temperature, turbidity, dissolved O2, pH, colour, alkalinity, hardness
  8. What are some problems associated with high TDS?
    • -Scaling tendency
    • -Will corrode
    • -Can be toxic
  9. How can you measure TDS?
    • -Conductivity
    • -Evaporating the water and weighing the solids left behind
    • -Complete ion analysis
  10. What parameters are necessary to predict scaling tendency?
    Hardness and alkalinity
  11. Define alkalinity
    The mols of acid required to titrate a water sample to a pH of 4.3
  12. Define retrograde solubility
    Solubility goes down as temperature goes up
  13. What's an example of a retrograde soluble compound?
  14. What is temporary hardness?
  15. Define hardness
    The sum of the polyvalent cations in water
  16. How is hardness determined?
    Through an EDTA titration
  17. What is total hardness?
    Temporary + permanent hardness
  18. What is permanent hardness?
    Non-bicarbonate hardness (CaCl2, CaCO3, CaSO4)
  19. Why is scale a problem?
    • -Can form an impermeable barrier
    • -Can increase corrosion (under deposit corrosion)
    • -Acts as an insulator
  20.  How can you use LSI to determine if a water will scale?
    • if LSI = 0, system is at equlibrium (saturated)
    • if LSI > 0, supersaturated; scale will form
    • if LSI <0, undersaturated; scale will not form
  21. What are 4 ways to prevent scale?
    • 1. Manage scale
    • 2. Use chemicals to prevent scale formation
    • 3. Remove ions before they can precipitate as scale
    • 4.Remove water and leave solids behind
  22. What is softening?
    Removing the hardness from water
  23. What are some parameters used to control the softening process?
    • 1. Adjust the pH
    • 2. Adjust ions (hardness and alkalinity)
    • 3. Adjust temperature
  24. DLS
    Dominion Land Survey
  25. ATS
    Alberta Township System
  26. NTS
    National Topographic System
Card Set
ENVS348 Review
Water parameters, TDS, Legal Land Descriptions