Chem 1314 Final

  1. s sublevel shape
    • l = 0
    • spherical 
  2. p sublevel shape
    • l = 1
    • figure eight shape/ two lobes
  3. d sublevel shape
    • l = 2
    • 4 lobes (or 2 lobes + ring)
  4. f sublevel shape
    • l = 3 
    • multiple lobes
  5. Hund's Rule
    when orbitals of equal energy are available, the electron configuration of lowest energy has the maximum number of unpaired elections with parallel spin.
  6. Transitional Metals: Cr
    Chromium: half filled 4s and 3d
  7. Transitional Metals: Cu
    Copper: half filled 4s, full 3d
  8. Coulomb's law
    electrostatic energy between two charges is directly proportional to the product of their magnitudes and inversely proportional to the distance between them.
  9. Types of Pairs in Covalent Bonding (9.3)
    • Shared pair/bonding pair
    • lone pair/unshared pair.
  10. Bond Order (9.3)
    number of shared electrons determines bond order. 1 shared electron is a single bond, 2 is a double bond, and so forth.
  11. Bond Energy/Bond Enthalpy/Bond Strength (9.3)
    • energy required to overcome attraction between bonded nuclei and shared electrons.
    • Abbreviated as BE
  12. Bond breakage BE
    • endothermic
    • bond energy is always positive.
  13. Bond formation BE
    • exothermic
    • bond energy/enthalpy change is negative.
  14. Bond length
    the distance between the two nuclei.
  15. Higher bond order = 
    • shorter bond length
    • higher bond energy.
  16. 1 atm in torrs
    760 torrs
  17. The photoelectric effect experiment demonstrates that
    light/electromagnetic radiation can behave like a particle.
  18. If we do not know the enthalpy change for a specific chemical reaction, but we do know enthalpy changes for other related/similar reactions, we can use 
    Hess's Law to calculate the delta H for the unknown reaction
  19. Hess's Law
    the total enthalpy change during the complete course of a reaction is same whether the reaction is made in one step or in several steps
  20. Kinetic Theory of Gases
    • small particles
    • particles in constant, random motion (increases with temp)
    • Elastic collisions (no energy lost)
  21. Molar Heat Capacity
    energy required to increase the temperature of 1 mole of a substance by 1 degree C or K
  22. One quantum of energy is equal to 
    hv (plank's constant times velocity)
  23. The atomic line spectrum of hydrogen unequivocally demonstrates that
    atomic structure is energetically quantized 
  24. We can equate delta E to delta H for processes where 
    pressure is constant 
  25. n = 
    mass/molar mass
  26. Ideal Gas Law
    PV = nRT
  27. delta H
    change in heat/enthalpy
  28. 1 mole of an ideal gas at STP
    • occupies 22.4 L
    • STP: 1 atm at 273.15 K
  29. qcontents =
     specific heatcontents * masscontents * delta Tcontents
  30. qcal
    heat capacitycal * delta Tcal 
  31. How many particles in a mole
    • Avogadro's number
    • 6.02 * 1023
  32. Four fundamental types of energy
    • electronic
    • vibrational 
    • rotational 
    • translational
  33. What does a molecular formula unit tells you what?
    how many moles of each element are in one mole of the compound 
  34. Assume that all strong acids completely 
  35. Mg + 2 HC2H3O2 -->
    • Mg (C2H3O2) + H2
  36. One millionth of a gram is a 
  37. One degree on the Farenheit scale is ____ than one degree on the Celsius scale
  38. The charge number is also called 
    the oxidation number
  39. Do isotopes have different numbers of electrons?
    No, only different numbers of neutrons
  40. Molecular/formula mass is
    the sum of all the atoms
Card Set
Chem 1314 Final
Material for the Chem 1314 Exam at Oklahoma State University