Chem 1314 Final
s sublevel shape
l = 0
p sublevel shape
l = 1
figure eight shape/ two lobes
d sublevel shape
l = 2
4 lobes (or 2 lobes + ring)
f sublevel shape
l = 3
when orbitals of equal energy are available, the electron configuration of lowest energy has the maximum number of unpaired elections with parallel spin.
Transitional Metals: Cr
Chromium: half filled 4s and 3d
Transitional Metals: Cu
Copper: half filled 4s, full 3d
electrostatic energy between two charges is directly proportional to the product of their magnitudes and inversely proportional to the distance between them.
Types of Pairs in Covalent Bonding (9.3)
Shared pair/bonding pair
lone pair/unshared pair.
Bond Order (9.3)
number of shared electrons determines bond order. 1 shared electron is a single bond, 2 is a double bond, and so forth.
Bond Energy/Bond Enthalpy/Bond Strength (9.3)
energy required to overcome attraction between bonded nuclei and shared electrons.
Abbreviated as BE
Bond breakage BE
bond energy is always positive.
Bond formation BE
bond energy/enthalpy change is negative.
the distance between the two nuclei.
Higher bond order =
shorter bond length
higher bond energy.
1 atm in torrs
The photoelectric effect experiment demonstrates that
light/electromagnetic radiation can behave like a particle.
If we do not know the enthalpy change for a specific chemical reaction, but we do know enthalpy changes for other related/similar reactions, we can use
Hess's Law to calculate the delta H for the unknown reaction
the total enthalpy change during the complete course of a reaction is same whether the reaction is made in one step or in several steps
Kinetic Theory of Gases
particles in constant, random motion (increases with temp)
Elastic collisions (no energy lost)
Molar Heat Capacity
energy required to increase the temperature of 1 mole of a substance by 1 degree C or K
One quantum of energy is equal to
hv (plank's constant times velocity)
The atomic line spectrum of hydrogen unequivocally demonstrates that
atomic structure is energetically quantized
We can equate delta E to delta H for processes where
pressure is constant
Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT
change in heat/enthalpy
1 mole of an ideal gas at STP
occupies 22.4 L
: 1 atm at 273.15 K
* delta T
* delta T
How many particles in a mole
6.02 * 10
Four fundamental types of energy
What does a molecular formula unit tells you what?
how many moles of each element are in one mole of the compound
Assume that all strong acids completely
Mg + 2 HC
) + H
One millionth of a gram is a
One degree on the Farenheit scale is ____ than one degree on the Celsius scale
The charge number is also called
the oxidation number
Do isotopes have different numbers of electrons?
No, only different numbers of neutrons
Molecular/formula mass is
the sum of all the atoms
Chem 1314 Final
Material for the Chem 1314 Exam at Oklahoma State University