1. Gmo stands for...
    Genetically modified Organism
  2. A gmo is...
    genetically modified organism that has recieved genetic material via recombinant DNA technology
  3. a transgenic organism is...
    recieved genetic material from a different species
  4. clones are..
    individiuals from the same cell
  5. transgenics is the study of...
    gmo with new DNAfrom biotechnology instead of breeding
  6. in transgenics, you take a single cell, and produce biologicals to do what...?
    make many genes
  7. Many genes make many _______ which make unique products for biomedication or to metabolize certain oils.
  8. you insert DNA into a genome using...
  9. why are plasmid beneficial?
    Because many plasmids can be made
  10. for multicellular transgenics what are the two types of modifications that you can have?
    • Knock ins
    • Knock outs
  11. A knockout is done on...
    mice and rats
  12. for knock outs, genes need to be targeted for...
    homologous recombination
  13. What are the steps to a knockout?
    • 1) insert random DNA into gene
    • 2) gene replacement , replaces the original gene with a new one.
  14. How can researchers  study how the loss of a normal gene function affects the organism?
    If a cloned gene has been rendered inactive by mutation and replaces the normal gene.
  15. Knockout targeting is only available for...
    new rodents
  16. Whats an example of a knockout?
    knock out a transcription factor in a mouse (usually embryo or gametes) and look at the effects
  17. knock ins are...
    inserting a gene that is not already in the particualr species' genome
  18. whats the example for a knock in?
    • glofish, insert gene that makes enzyme to produce a fluorescent color in the presence of certain environmental toxins under the control of Cu promoter.
    • if Cu is present, fish will glow when inserted gene is next to promoter
  19. for knock ins, the __________ is added to a particular site in a genome.
    gene of interest
  20. In eukaryotes, what do we use for knock in procedures?
    inactive viruses carrying gene of interest for insertion
  21. How do you make gmo salmon?
    growth hormone gene -> makes them very large
  22. How do you make gmo chicken?
    excrete proteins in eggs -> adds nutrient to diet
  23. What are the two way gmo plants have survival skills (what factors?)
    • genes encode herbicide resistance (crop survives, weeds die)
    • pesticide gene (poision bugs that will kill plant)
  24. What is the survival resistance example?
    B+ cotton gene, lethal to cotton bullworm, which eats cotton, China Okayed the B+, cotton bullworms start to die off, BUT the bullworms will eventually resistant
  25. When a species becomes resistant to a gmo, what is that called?
    Proliferation of resistant species
  26. What are the three types of disadvantages of gmo/caveats?
    • ecological
    • allergenic
    • practical
  27. What are the ecological disadvantages of gmo?
    Takeover of gmo, less natural things in the ecosystem
  28. What are the allergenic disadvantages of gmo?
    gmo (pesticide) can kill bystanding plants and things
  29. What are the practical disadvantages of gmo?
    • nontargeted gene cause problems (go in multiple copies/no control on gene location)
    • gene therapy in humans (cancer)
  30. What is a mouse model for human disease?
    A mouse model is a strain of mice that carries a mutation in a mouse gene that is analogous to a mutation in a human gene that causes disease.
  31. With regard to maternal effect genes, is the phenotype of sucha cloned animal determined by the animal that donated the enucleated egg or by the animal that donated the somatic cell nucleus?
    • With regard to maternal effect genes, the phenotype would depend on the animal that donated the egg.
    • It is the cytoplasm of the egg that accumulates the gene products of maternal effect genes.
  32. Does the cloned animal inherit extranuclear traits from the animal that donated the egg or from the animal that donated the somatic cell?
    The extranuclear traits depend on the mitochondrial genome. Mitochondria are found in the egg and in the somatic cell. So, theoretically, both cells could contribute extranuclear traits.
  33. In what ways would you expect this cloned animal to be similar to or different from the animal that donated the somatic cell? Is it accurate to call such an animal a “clone” of the animal that donated the nucleus?
    • The cloned animal would be genetically identical to the animal that donated the nucleus with regard to traits that are determinedby nuclear genes, which are expressed during the lifetime of the organism.
    • The cloned animal would/could differ from the animal that donated the nucleus with regard to traits that are determined by maternal effect genes and mitochondrial genes.
    • It is not a true clone
  34. Reproductive cloning refers to
    methods that produce two or more genetically identical individuals.
  35. _______cloning happens occasionally in nature
  36. Plants can be cloned from _________cells
  37. What is the protocol for the succesful cloning of sheep?
    • 1)Donor sheep mammary cell is extracted and grown in a tissue culture flask, another sheep's unfertilized egg is etracted (nucleus is removed)
    • 2) The cells are fused together w/ electrical pulses
    • 3) the donor nucleus and the maternal proteins within the enucleated egg intiate development of the egg into an embryo
    • 4) embryo is transferred into a surrogate ewe
    • 5) Allow preganancy to proceed
    • 6) A lamb genetically identical to the donor sheep is born
  38. Dolly was "genetically older" because?
    Her donor genes were "older" than what she was
  39. Stem cells supply...
    the cells that construct our bodies from a fertilized egg.
  40. In adults, stem cell replenish...
    worn out or damaged cells.
  41. What are the two common characteristics of stem cells?
    • They have the capacity to divide
    • they can differentiate into one or more speciallized cell types.
  42. A stem cell goes through differntiation to produce what'?
    a red blood cell
  43. A fertilized egg is considered totipotent because?
    it can give rise to all the cell types in the adult organism
  44. What contains embryonic stem cells (ES cells)?
    The early mammalian embryo
  45. where are ES cells found?
    inner cell mass of the blastocyst
  46. ES cells are pluripotenet, which means..
    they can differentiate itno almost every cell type of the body
  47. During the early fetal stage of development, the germ-line cells found in the gonads are pluripotent and called
    EG (embryonic germ ) cells
  48. A multipotent stem cell can differentiate into...
    several cell types but far fewer than an ES cell.
  49. Unipotant stem cells can differentiate into...
    only a single cell type (primordial germ -> sperm)
  50. occurence of kind of stem cell classification?
    • totipotent
    • pluripotient (2 stages)
    • Multipotent or unipotenet
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