Iran and China

  1. Anglo-Iranian Oil Co.
    British owned petroleum company once nationalized sold to U.S. and Britian
  2. Mossadeq
    Lead the Tudeh (Masses) and the National Front. Was Prime Minister of Iran during Nationalization of the oil industry (1951). Wanted to end Shah's links with the military.  Elected in 1951 and overthrown in 1953 by the Shah.
  3. Nationalization
    Instead of privately owned, its government (state owned). Nationalization of the oil fields by Mossadeq.
  4. The Shah
    Shah has absolute power, considered the king of kings. Supreme leader. The Shah formed the resurgence party declairing Iran an one party state.
  5. SAVAK
    Secrect police. Formed during Islamic Revolution (1979). The Shah created the SAVAK.
  6. Ayatollah Kohomeini
    His version of Shi'ism is known as Islamic Fundamentalism. Gave a new meaning to the Shi'i term: velayat-e faqih (which means Jurist's Guardianship : Which is a concept that the Iranian Clergy should rule on the grounds that they are the Divinely appointed guardians of both the law and people).
  7. The Iranina Revolution (1979)
    Strange alliance of new laws the Ayatollah Khomeini, middle class, bazaris, new urbanites from rural areas. This was the shift to Islamic Fundamentalism that Khomeini lead trying to put clergy in power (Jurist Guardianship).
  8. Hostage Crisis
    November 4, 1979 Young student hostiles take employees hostage at the U.S. embassy; urged by the clerics. They were kept for 1 year. After the Carter administration, Reagan was elected president. Within 5 mins of his inaguration, the prisioners were released.
  9. Islamic Rebuplic of Iran
    Its a theocracy (divine rule by the clerics). Has elements of a democracy, the president is elected by the citizens. Established constitution which gave ultimate power up to the Jurist's, or guardian council.
  10. Islamism
    A new use of the term for Islam as a political ideology (Islamic fundamentalism).
  11. Iran-Iraq War
    Saddam Hussein invades Iran, taking advantage of the chaos of the revolution. 1980-1988 was the long drawn out war. Introduction of Iraq's nuclear weapons. The U.S, leaned towards supporting Iraq, because Iran views Americans as the reincarnation of evil. So to keep relations in the region, the U.S. supported Saddam. Iraq wins the war.
  12. Ayatollah Ali Khmanenei
    1989 is when Khomeini dies. The new supreme leader is Ali Khamenei. Is from the conservative faction, which is tradtional and very religious. Was elected president in 1981 before being appointed Shah (supreme leader).
  13. Supreme Leader
  14. Juris's Guardianship
    Vekayat-e faqh. Iranian Clergy who rule through divine rights over the law and people.
  15. Theocracy
    A government that is ruled by religion, "divine rule".
  16. Shari'a
    The moral and religious code of Islam. Considered the infallible law of God—as opposed to the human interpretation of the laws
  17. Ahmadinejad
    Elected as president in 2005, re-elected in 2009 (voting scandal) Ultraconservative, anti- U.S. His platform was to reduce poverty.
  18. Guardian Council
    A committee created by the Iranian constitution to oversee parliment (Majiles). Lead by clergy.
  19. Shia
    Second largest branch of Islam. Also known as the Shi'ites. Strictly follow the Quran, belive only God has the right to choose a representative.
  20. Political Factions (Moderates/reformers, conservatives/fundamentalist)
  21. 2009 Election
    Ahmadinejad relected, widely believed voting scandal, aggitation in civil society.
  22. Majiles
    Iranian Parliment, legislative. 290 elected members, single member district plurality.
  23. Nuclear program
  24. Opium War
    1839-1842 British wanted ports in China to start free trade. They needed a comodity that would appeal to the chinese, they sold them opium as medicine from Britians Indian colonies. Opium was a huge problem in China, addiction was rampent. Civil society was breaking down, due to addiction.
  25. 1911 revolution
    Led by Sun Yat-sen to overthrow the 2000 year old chinese emperor system the Qing dynasty (Manchu). Sun Yet-sen establishes the Republic of China.
  26. Sun Yat-sen
    led the 1911 revolution to overthrow the emperor, instilled a republic.
  27. PRC and ROC
    • Republic of China = ROC
    • Peoples Republic of China = PRC
    • Both parties formed an alliance to fight against the Japanese. After the defeat of the Japanese, civil war errupts and the communist win (PRC).
  28. Long March
    6000 mile long journey the CCP (Chinese Communist Party) led by Mao Zedong and was surrounded by Chiang Kai-shek; undertook in 1934.
  29. KMT (Kuomintang)
    Chinese nationalist party The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution. Later led by Chiang Kai-shek, it ruled much of China from 1928 until its retreat to Taiwan in 1949 after being defeated by the Communist Party of China (CPC) during the Chinese Civil War.
  30. CCP
    Chinese Communist Party.Founded in 1921 and sent into hiding in 1927 by Chaing Kai-shek. During the Long March, Mao Zedong gains control over the CCP which comes into power and defeats the KMT. Marxist-Lenonist beliefs inspiried by Russian 1917 revolution.
  31. Chaing Kai-shek
    Successor to Sun Yet-sen, lost to Mao(CCP), self exiled to Taiwan.
  32. Taiwan
    After its defeat by the Communists in 1949, Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist Party and army retreated to the island of Taiwan, just 90 miles off the coast of central China. The Chinese com-munists would probably have taken over Taiwan if the United States had not intervened to prevent an invasion. More than six decades later, Taiwan remains politically separate from the People’s Republic of China and still formally calls itself the Republic of China.
  33. Mao Zedong
    While in power redistribuited the land from the rich to the poor increased agriculture production in the countryside and eliminated opium addiction and prostituiton in the cities. Led the CCP. Founded the PRC in 1949.
  34. Maoism
    Is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Mao Zedong. Its followers, known as Maoists, consider it as an anti-Revisionist form of Marxism-Leninism.
  35. Great Leap Forward
    Utopian effort from 1958-1960, through labor would accelerate China's development to rival Britian and the U.S. Laborers were run through a military style. Focus was on industry and agriculture. Back yard steel furnaces were created to increase steel production. Backyard steel failed due to lack of technical knowledge and exagerated agriculture yeild numbers led to droughts, famine, and floods. Food rationing was practiced as well as soup lines. Led to failure through haste and lack of knowledge about the process.
  36. Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
    Mao's ideology (1966-1976) aimed at breaking through social class structure and unifying China's society.
  37. Deng Xiaoping
    Veteran Official that Mao removed from office. Reformist who opened the market taking much of the states power to control the economy away.
  38. Paramount leader
    Leader in china, may or may not have a formal role (Deng Xiaoping).
  39. CMC (Central Military Commission)
    The most important military organization in the People’s Republic of China, headed by the general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, who is the commander-in-chief of the People’s Liberation Army.
  40. PLA (People's Liberation Army)
    Military that is under control of the CMC but supports the PRC and previously the CCP.
  41. Tianabneb incident
    Prodemocracy protest in 1989 in which the PRC army used force and brutally massacred the demonstrators.
  42. Socialst market economy
    some degree of capitalism, national and local bureaucrats continue to exercise a great deal of control over the production and distribution of goods, resources, and  services. According to the country’s constitution (Article 15), “The state strengthens  economic legislation, improves macro-control of the economy, and, in accordance with the law, prohibits disturbance of the socioeconomic order by any organization or individual.” Market reforms have gained substantial momen-tum that would be nearly impossible to reverse. But the CCP still determines the  direction of China’s economy.
  43. SOE's (State Owned Enterprises)
    Government owned business (PRC)
  44. Household responsibility system
    The system put into  practice in China  beginning in the early 1980s in which the major decisions about agricul-tural production are made by individual farm families based on the profi t motive rather than by a people’s commune or the government.
  45. Standing Committee of the Politburo
    Politiburo = committee of the top dozen or so members of the CCP

    Standing committee = A subgroup of the Politburo, with less than a dozen members. The most powerful political organization in China
  46. Communist Party-state
    A political system in which a communist party holds a monopoly on political power and controls the government (the state).
  47. Hu Jintao
    President of China, no longer head of CCP.
  48. Xi Jinping
    New supreme leader of the CCP, General secretary of the party.
  49. Corruption
  50. Censorship
  51. Contaminated milk scandal
    the addition of an industrial chemical to powdered milk in order to boost its apparent protein content. Six babies died from the contami-nated products, and more than 300,000 others, mostly children, became sick. Two men who worked for the responsible dairy fi rm were executed, six people went to prison, including the former chairwoman of the dairy, who was given a life sentence, and several government offi cials were fi red. The father of one sickened child, how-ever, was jailed after setting up a website to help victims and push for compensation
  52. Three Gorges Dam
    hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping,
  53. Tibet
  54. Han
    correct term for the most advanced ethnic groups, the chineses. (ethnocentric)
  55. Liu Xiaobo and Charter 08
    First PRC member to win the nobel peace prize for writing the charter 08, which promoted the UN's charter for human rights, in 2010.
Card Set
Iran and China