Rhetoric Final

  1. Signification
    • Signification is the area of discourse where proper English
    • functions. Lower case signification is
    • the area of discourse where those who are not of the proper English language
    • (anyone whose not white of European decent) functions. By using signification
    • you can double coat meanings and alter words to express your experience
    • allowing people such as black slaves to function and communicate under the
    • radar of the whit oppressor.
  2. Gates Jr
    • Discusses what happens when rhetoric meets race. How a
    • minority can take the dominant discourse meant for whites and their experiences
    • and double coat it to express their experiences. i.e. black vernacular
    • discourse- what did I do to be so black and blue
  3. Opressors language
    • standard English according to hooks. “this is the oppressors
    • language, yet I need it to speak you”. Language with a history of conquest.
  4. Hooks
    • a teacher who encourages people to understand that
    • standard English is a language with a history of oppression and it is important
    • to allow students to speak their non dominant language in order to speak their
    • personal truths of their experience which keeps their identity intact.
    • Important because she knows that language isn’t rational and cannot be controlled
    • it is disruptive, it is made up of passion. Forcing people to use standard
    • English strips you of your passion.
  5. Rhetoric of difference
    • rhetoric spoken through non dominant languages, where use of
    • language makes a political statement at the same times it reinforces your individual identity. It is
    • important because everyone has their own identity and their own truths that are
    • spoken through different languages and if we suppress these we cause people to
    • lose their identity.
  6. Discursive space
    • Flores a carved out space where one has the power to create
    • a new identity other than that placed on you. Important because this space
    • gives you agency to make change.
  7. Flores
    • Chicano feminist who discusses the issues people have
    • when they are living on borders and have no real place to call home. She
    • invites people to create their own identity and reach out to others in the same
    • predicament. She is important because she
    • gives hope to people who feels displaced in a culture that is not their
    • own and lets them know they are in charge of their world.
  8. Nakayama
    • believes the media plays a big role in how we identify
    • ourselves. Popular culture is re-centering white hetero sexual masculinity: We
    • strayed away from the ideal white man and media reinforces that idea. i.e.
    • martial arts films, white men are always good, have muscles and asian men are
    • small
  9. Orders of discourse
    • 1. Exclusions: sexuality, politics. 2. Division: madness( we
    • don’t have to listen to) vs. sanity 3. Will to truth: our desire to find it but
    • nothing to back it up because it’s a power statement
  10. Foucalt
    • philosopher, psychiatrist, psychologist. We’re worried about
    • what discourse might do to us so we order and restrict it Will to truth, we desire
    • to find truth that’s unaffected so we can know for sure but that’s impossible
    • because our lang affects our reality. Claims we make are usually based on power
    • and not truth. Micro politics tell us how to act in society
  11. Terministic screens
    • how labels (verbal, lang, term) frame someone or something
    • in a particular way.
    • Select/reflect/deflect. Use language to reflect then select what to say
    • then deflect.
  12. Moralization
    • moralized by the negative what makes us human and gives us
    • agency. Saying no is saying we are one thing and not the other. No is language
    • which is a symbol and without humans we don’t have symbols
  13. Identification
    • different from persuasion and start emphasize on the things
    • Aristotle argued for rhetoric and looks at it more broadly. 1. Most communication
    • is not persuasive- goal oriented (don’t think things out before every convo)
    • Compensatory- compensate for division because we all don’t want to be
    • different. Modes bringin us together is morals beliefs, sports. Consubstatial-
    • brings people together- I am a man I can speak for men. Saying no creates our
    • identities. For every identification there is a division because if we are one
    • thing we are not another. Rhetoric makes identification and division go
    • together.
  14. Bakhtin
    • A Russian lived during some horrible world events asked how
    • language effects us. The individual consciousness is a social-ideiological
    • fact: we are who we are because of our interactions, we have now no sense of
    • core self, its external and follows our group beliefs. i.e. workers don’t
    • revolt because they think they’ll eventually move up even though they don’t.
    • Words are materialistic. Your life is affected by your symbol. i.e. woman= less
    • rights
  15. Burke
    • concerned with relationship between language and society.
    • Influenced by Marxist theories of group values. Thinks literature is equipment
    • for life. All things that humans create have consequences. When you use lang,
    • it creates an attitude. Lang tells us how to behave. All rhetoric functions as
    • symbolic action. Select, reflect, deflect( lang is a reflection of reality, but
    • its selective and deflects us from viewing other aspects). Symbols that are
    • always partial and particular, inclusive and exclusive.
  16. Slave Narrative
    • The story told by a slave before to aw people and shock
    • before “educated “white man comes and explains how wrong slavery is. Douglass
    • wants to tell his story but be accepted for who he has become since then,
    • doesn’t just want to be the example, wants to be the movement.
  17. Douglass
    • Former slave who escaped after being taught by his masters wife
    • to begin to read. Realizes that slavery
    • is wrong from “Liberation”, reads a book on great speeches that includes Cicero
    • to teach himself to read and write. When you treat people inhumanely you lose a
    • little of yourself. Was caught between being a “slave” and telling the slave
    • story and being an educated man. Spoke
    • truth to power and acknowledged how labels bias our speech.
  18. Letters on the Equality of the Sexes
    • written by Grimke, a letter arguing for women’s right
    • to speak in public, specifically church. A lot like fell, uses the bible to argue
    • that men are distorting messages in it to keep women down. Important because she recognizes that our
    • intelligence is what makes us human and men and women are equally intelligent.
  19. Sarah Grimke
    • educated upper class white woman. Argues men and women are created equal but it
    • is not happening. Women deserve the right to speak in public. What makes a
    • human a human is its ability to think not its strength, so why are men better
    • because of their muscles. Women deserve
    • education seeing as they are in charge of morality. Wanted women to be allowed
    • to function in both private and public sector.
    • Quaker, played a role in abolition, as a way to get women into the
    • public. Can’t say women are less intelligent when they are denied education.
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Rhetoric Final
Rhetoric Final Exam Study Guide