1. Kirby-Bauer Test 
    • routinely done to monitor the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria
    • Observe for a trend in order to take precautionary measures
  2. examples of precautionary measures
    • development of new drugs
    • determining the molecular basis for resistance and modify existing drugs accordingly
  3. Other uses of KB test
    • test the antibiotic sensitivity of an organism
    • takes away the guessing when choosing antibiotic
    • lets you know if it's gram positive or gram neg.
  4. procedures for KB test
    • Prepare a pure culture (18-24 hrs) of the sample on a non-selective medium
    • Adjust turbidity until it is equivalent to the 0.5 McFarland Turbidity Standard
    • Within 15 minutes of adjusting the turbidity dip a sterile cotton swab into the sample
    • streak a lawn of bacteria on Mueller-Hinton agar
    • Leave the lid agar for 3-5 minutes (no more than 15 minutes) to allow plate to dry
    • Apply antibiotic impregnated disks on the bacterial lawn
    • Important: where the disk drops is where it stays
    • Incubate for 16-18 hours at 33 ± 2C unless otherwise instructed
  5. results of KB test
    • Antibiotics diffuse out onto the agar
    • Concentration of antibiotics decrease as they diffuse further away from the disks
    • After incubation, observe for a clearing on the  bacterial lawn (zone of inhibition)
  6. how to come to conclusions with results of KB test
    • Measure the diameters of the zone of inhibition
    • Interpret the results as “resistant” or “susceptible”  according to the guideline provided by the NCCLS
    • Interpretation of the zone of inhibition is different for  each bacteria-antibiotic combination
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    • zone of inhibition (yellow)
    • bacterial growth (orange)
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    trichomonas vaginalis 
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    trichomonas vaginalis
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    • plasmodium falciparum ring stage
    • (malaria)
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    leishmania donovani
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    trypanosoma cruzi in blood smear
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    toxoplasma gondii
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    entamoeba histolytica intestinal lesions
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    balantidium coli
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    Trypanosoma gambiense
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    Naegleria fowleri
  18. Amoebic Dysentery
    • Pathogen: entamoeba histolytica
    • Symptoms: abscesses; significant mortality rate
    • Reservoir: humans
    • Diagnosis: microscopy; serology
    • Treatment: metronidazole
  19. Trichomoniasis
    Causative agent:
    Found in: 
    • Causative agent: trichomonas vaginalis
    • Found in: semen or urine of male carriers
    • SS: Vaginal infection that causes irritation and profuse foul, greenish yellow frothy discharge
    • pH:5-8
    • Diagnosis: microscopic ID; DNA probe
    • treatment: metronidazole
  20. Trypanosoma gambiense
    Where is it identified?
    • ID in the blood, CSF
    • SS (sleeping sickness), fever, sleepiness, unconsciousness
    • Motility due to flagella
  21. Chagas Disease
    Causative agent:
    • Causative agent: trypanosoma cruzi
    • Reservoir: rodents, opossums, armadillos
    • Vector: reduviid bug
  22. Giardiasis 
    Causative agent:
    • Causative agent: giardia lamblia
    • SS: most asymptomatic, chronic diarrhea, dehydration, abdominal pain
    • ID: by cyst form or trophozoites in stool
    • Transmission: contaminated food or water
    • Motility: flagella
  23. Leishmaniasis
    Causative agent:
    geographic distribution:
    • Disease: visceral Leishmaniasis
    • Causative agent: leishmania donovani
    • vector: sandflies
    • reservoir: small mammals
    • treatment: amphotericin B or miltefosine
    • geographic distribution: south asia, sudan, brazil
  24. Balantidiasis 
    Causative agent:
    • Causative agent: balantidium coli
    • SS: mostly asymptomatic, diarrhea alternating w/ constipation, blood and mucus in feces
    • ID: cyst form or trophozoites
    • Motility: cilia
  25. Malaria
    Causative agent:
    definitive host: 
    • Causative agent: Plasmodium falciparum
    • SS: chills, nausea, vomiting
    • vector: anopheles mosquito
    • definitive host: anopheles mosquito
    • control: bed nets
    • treatment: artemisin
  26. Life Cycle of Malaria
    • 1. Infected moquito bites human; sporozoites migrate through bloodstream to liver of human
    • 2. Sporozoites undergo schizogony in liver cell; merozoites are produced
    • 3. Merozoites released nto bloodstream from liver may infect new RBCs
    • 4. Merozoite develops into ring stage in RBC
    • 5. Ring stage grows and divides, producing merozoites
    • 6. Merozoites are released when RBC ruptures; some merozoites infect new RBC and some develop into male and female gametocytes
    • 7. Another mosquito bites infected human and ingests gametocytes
    • 8. In mosquito's digestive tract, gametocytes unite to form zygote
    • 9. Resulting sporozoites migrate to salivary gands of mosquito
  27. Cryptosporidiosis
    • Pathogen: crytposporidium hominis
    • SS: self-limiting diarrhea; may be life threatening in immunosuppressed ppl
    • Reservoir: cattle; water
    • Diagnosis: acid-fast stain; FA; ELISA
    • Treatment: oral rehydration
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    Ascaris lumbricoides eggs
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    clonorchis sinensis eggs
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    Enterobius vermicularis eggs
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    Enterobius vermicularis eggs (too)
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    Necator americanus adult
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    schistosoma japonicum eggs
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    schistosoma mansoni miracidiae
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    tapeworm, scolex
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    tapeworm, proglottis
  37. Percentage of people infected by helminths
    • 1. Ascaris (30%)
    • 2. hook worms (21%)
    • 3. enterobius (10%)
    • 4. schistosome (6%)
    • 5. tapeworms (3%)
    • 6. flukes-liver, lung (1.5%)
    • 7. trichinella (1%)
  38. Name the three groups of parasitic helminths
    • 1. trematodes (flukes)
    • 2. cestodes (tapeworms)
    • 3. nematodes (roundworms)
  39. Scientific name, Disease, Location, Infectivity, Identification, and Treatment of Trematode Parasites
    • 1. C. sinensis
    • 2. Clonorchiasis (liver disease)
    • 3. Japan, Korea, Taiwan, US (Southern Asian Immigrants)
    • 4. ingestion of infected undercooked fish
    • 5. eggs in feces
    • 6. Praziquantel - increases the permeability of the membranes of parasite cells(paralysis); Albendazole - depletes their glycogen stores
  40. Clonorchis sinensis (liver fluke) life cycles
    • 1. Embryonated eggs passed in feces
    • 2. eggs ingested by snail, go from miracidea to sporocysts to rediae to cercariae
    • 3. free swimming cercariae encysts in the skin or freshwater fish
    • 4. Metacercariae in flesh or skin of freshwater fish are ingested by human host
    • 5. excyst in duodenum
    • 6. adults in biliary duct
  41. What is the streak plate method and why is it used?
    Method of isolation that allows for the formation of individual colony forming units by reducing the number of bacterial cells with each streaked quadrant.
  42. What is a pure culture and how is it obtained?
    • a laboratory culture containing a single species of organism.
    • A pure culture is usually derived from a mixed culture (one containing many species) by transferring a small sample into new, sterile growth medium in such a manner as to disperse the individual cells across the medium surface or by thinning the sample manyfold before inoculating the new medium.
  43. What is aseptic technique?
    refers to a procedure that is performed under sterile conditions.
  44. What are the cultural characteristics of bacterial colonies?
    • morphology
    • arrangement
  45. how do you make a bacterial smear
    A Slide that has had bacteria placed on it and that has been treated to cause the bacterial cells to adhere to the slide

    Small drop of water scoop small amount of bacteria onto slide and spread in small cirular motionheat fix to adhere the slide
  46. why is heat fixation used
    To adhere the bacteria to the slide and to help sterilize the surrounding area of the slide
  47. what is a hanging drop method and why is it used?
    method where a drop of a culture is placed directly on a coverslip (there is a circular depressed area in the middle of the slide) allowing the drop of broth to hang in the space of the depression. This technique is useful for thick cells such as protozoans must be examined

    Used to examine live organisms
  48. what is Brownian motion
    when nonmotile organisms exhibit a dancing or jiggling motion that does not result in traveling any distance this is a specific name for this motion
  49. Why would you perform a simple stain
    to be able to examine single cells through a microscope.

    Used as general, all purpose stains.

    Usually basic dye that will stain the cell membranes are negatively charged.
  50. What are the morphologies of bacteria?
    • 1. Cocci
    • 2. Bacilli
    • 3. Vibrios
    • 4. Spirillum/Spirochetes
  51. Arrangements of Cocci
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  52. Arrangements of Bacilli
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  53. Arrangement of Spirilla
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  54. Steps of Gram Staining
    • 1) Choose isolated colony
    • 2) Place bacteria on slide in a circular motion
    • 3) Heat fix for about 30 seconds
    • 4)Place on staining tray
    • 5) Flood surface with crystal violet
    • 6) rinse with water
    • 7) flood surface with iodine
    • 8)Rinse with water
    • 9)Flood with Alcohol
    • 10) rinse with water
    • 11) flood Safranin
    • 12) rinse- blot slide read with oil immersion lens of microscope- look for gram - and gram +bacteria
  55. steps to acid-fast staining
    • Prepare smear. Heat fix.
    • Add Kinyoun's carolfuchsin and stain for 5 min. Rinse with water.
    • Flood slide with acid-alcohol for 3 min. Rinse with water.
    • Add acid-alcohol for 1 min or until no more stain is removed from smear. Rinse with water.
    • Counterstain with methylene blue for 1 min.
    • Rinse slide with water and air-dry.
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    gram stain
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    acid fast stain
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    capsule stain
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    flagella stain
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    endospore stain
  61. Schistosoma life cycle and route of infection
    • 1. adult female lay eggs
    • 2. eggs reach body of water after being excreted in feces or urine
    • 3. eggs hatch into free-swimming larvae -> miracidium
    • 4. miracidium penetrates snail
    • 5. miracidium reproduces in snail, forming several cercariae
    • 6. cercaria are released from snail
    • 7. free swimming cercariae penetrate human skin, losing tail
    • 8. cercariae travl through circulatory system to intestinal BVs where they mature into adults.
  62. Tapeworms life cycle
    • 1. adult female lay eggs in feces or urine
    • 2. eggs hatch and release miracidia
    • 3. miracidium penetrates snail
    • 4. miracidium reproduces in snail -> sporocysts ->cercariae
    • 5. cercaria are released from snail
    • 6. free swimming cercariae penetrate human skin
    • 7. cercariae lose tail during penetration, become schistosomulae
    • 8. travel through circulatory system
    • 9. migrate to portal blood in liver and mature into adults
    • 10. paired audlt worms migrate to mesenteric venules of bowel/rectum (laying eggs that circulate to the liver and shed in stools) and to venous plexus of bladder
  63. Necatur americanus life cycle
    • 1. Eggs are passed in the stool,  larvae hatch in 1 to 2 days.  The released rhabditiform larvae grow in the feces and/or the soil 
    • 2. after 5 to 10 days they become filariform (third-stage) larvae that are infective . 
    • 3. On contact with the human host, the larvae penetrate the skin and are carried through the blood vessels to the heart and then to the lungs.  They penetrate into the pulmonary alveoli, ascend the bronchial tree to the pharynx, and are swallowed .
    • 4. The larvae reach the small intestine, where they reside and mature into adults.  Adult worms live in the lumen of the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall with resultant blood loss by the host . 
    • 5. Most adult worms are eliminated in 1 to 2 years, but the longevity may reach several years.
  64. monoecious
    having both male and female organs in the sameindividual; hermaphroditic.
  65. diecious
    having the male and female organs in separate and distinct individuals; having separate sexes.
  66. difference between cestodes, nematodes, and trematodes
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  67. scolex
    the anterior, headlike segment of a tapeworm, having suckers,hooks, or the like, for attachment.
  68. proglottid
    one of the segments or joints of a tapeworm, containing completereproductive systems, usually both male and female.
  69. Differential and selective media purpose
    • Useful in clinical isolation of enterobacteriaeae
    • Media are designed to encourage the rowth of nterics while discourage the growth of harmless bacteria
    • Distinguish lactose fermenters such as E. coli from non-lactose fermenters such as Salmonella Shigella
  70. MacConkey agar is designed to select for ___ organisms and differentially stain them for ___ ___
    • Gram -
    • lactose fermentation
  71. In MacConkey agar, the neutral red dye stains microbes that ___ ___
    ferment lactose
  72. EMB stands for
    Eosin methylene blue
  73. EMB is both a selective and ___ media.
  74. EMB inhibits the growth of ___ bacteria.
    Gram +
  75. EMB provides a ___ indicator distinguishing between organisms that ferment lactose (E. coli) and those that do not (Salmonella)
  76. In EMB agar, organisms that ferment latose display "___ ___," colonies with dark circles.
    Nucleated colonies
  77. What rsult will you get with E.coli in an EMB test
    metallic sheen
  78. Hektoen Enteric Agar is a slective and differential agar primarily used to recover ___ and __ from patient specimens
    • Salmonella
    • Shigella
  79. HEA or HE or HEK
    Hektoen Enteric Agar
  80. HE contains indicators of ___ ___ and ___ production.
    • lactose fermentation
    • H2S
  81. In HE, salmonella produces ___ colonies, Shigella produces translucent ___ colonies [the agar itself is green], where Black = ___ production, Yellow = ___ production, and Blue-Green = ___ ___
    • Black
    • Green
    • H2S
    • Lactose fermentation
    • non-lactose fermenters
  82. TSI
    Triple sugar iron
  83. The TSI test is named for its ability to test microorganisms ability to ___ ___ and to produce ___
    • Ferment sugars
    • H2S
  84. The TSI slant contains agar, a pH-sensitive dye (phenol red), 1% ___, 1% ___, 0.1% ___, as well as sodium thiosulfate
    • lactose
    • sucrose
    • glucose
  85. The slanted slope of this medium provides an array of surfaces that aid either exposed to O2-containing air (aerobic environment) or not exposed to air (anaerobic environment)
    TSI agar
  86. bacteria growing on ___ may ferment any or all the sugars, producing a characteristic pattern for each nteric bacteria.
  87. Acids will change the color of phenol red to ___. Position of the color change distinguishes the acid production associtated with ___ fermentation from the acidic byproducts of lactose or ___ fermentation
    • yellow
    • glucose
    • sucrose
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    • C: no fermentation
    • 1: neg. for fermentation
    • 2. glucose only
    • 3. glucose fermentation + H2S production
    • 4. Glucose + lactose fermentation + gas
    • 5. Glucose and lactose fermentation plus gas and H2S
  89. The enterotube
    a self-contained sterile plastic tube with 12 compartments containing distinct media that permit different biochemical tests to be done.
  90. Litmus Milk reactions:Image Upload 62La
    • A. peptonization
    • B. Alkaline, lactose Not fermented
    • C. lower pH, more acidic
    • D. lower pH, more acidic
    • E. Lactose fermented, most acidic
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    paramecium in conjugation
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    volvox sexual stages
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Card Set
Microbiology Lab Final