In what production cycle do ewes require the highest amount of TDN in their diet?
During the first 6-8 weeks of laction whether suckling twins or singles.
During what production period does a ewe require the most protein in their diet?
the first 6-8 weeks of lactation. Suckling either twins or a single.
what numerical scoring system is use to evaluate ewes nutritional status?
- Body Condition Score: based on a 1-5 scale
By palpating the topline of the ewes what do we expect to find out?
If you can feel the backbone of the ewes, the ewe is too THIN (Body condition 1 or 2) for the start of the breeding season
How many weeks out do we need to palpate the topline of our ewes before breeding season?
4 weeks: alows us time to improve their BCS prior to the start of breeding season.
What do we need to to if we find ewes that are to thin while palpating 4 weeks prior to the breeding season?
Start feeding: at least 1lb of cereal grain or concentrate mix per hd, per day immediately
At mating, the ideal body condition of a ewe in proper nutritional status for this period of her productive cycle is?
What is the ideal BCS for a ewe at the end of a pregnancy?
- BCS = 4
- although we do not want to exceed 4.5 at lambing due to potential problems with prgnancy toxemia (ketosis)
What is the ideal BCS of a Ram at the start of breeding season?
BCS = 3
For spring lambing ewes, how many pounds of a concentrate mix must be provide in adition to pasture grass for flushing?
1lb of cereal grain or concentrate mix per hd, per day
During late gestation of a spring lambing ewe grazing warm season variety forages, how many pounds of concentrate mix must be provided?
1-2.5 lbs per hd, per day will be need to satisfy nutrient deficiences
In a spring lambing program, why is wheat pasture a more desirable forage to use rather than bermudagrass?
- Wheat pasture is at its prime when the ewes in a spring lambing opperation are requiring the most nutrients.
- Bermudagrass is still dormant or just starting to grow when we need the most nutrient requiring us to feed more concentrates.
How do we deal with possible bloat when feeding ewes on lush vegetative pasture like wheat?
Supplement Poloxalene (bloat gaurd)
How do we deal with possible grass tetany when utilizing lush vegitative forages like wheat?
How does energy and protein consumption affect wool growth?
- Energy: is typically limiting factor
- Energy: is associated with the quality and availability of forage
- Energy:high quality forage = greater wool production
- Protein: is not limiting for wool production unless intake falls below 80% of requirement
How soon after birth should a lamb receive colostrum?
- 1 hour of birth
- 12-18 hours colostrum absorption diminishes
- 4-6oz within the 12-18 hour window is recommended
How much colostrum is recommended for newborn lambs?
4-6 oz within the first 12-18 hours
What four reasons is colostrum milk vital for the new born lamb?
- Energy dense (fat)
- Easily digestible
- Serves as a laxative and gut stimulant
- source of antibodies (passive immunity)
Why do lambs require colostrum so early in life?
- absorbtion: absorbtion of the entire immunoglobulin threw the small intestine only happens right after birth.
- After 12-18 hours the immunoglobulins are degredated and aborbed in pieces and provide energy rather than antibodies
Is there a difference in cold versus warm milk for orphan lambs?
- Nutritionally: no, cold milk is just as nutritius for lambs as warm
- Paletability: yes, lambs like warm milk better but will transition to cold milk after they are used to nursing on something other than ewes
Why do we feed lambs cold milk?
- Milk will not sour as quickly
- Lambs will consume less per nursing, but will nurse more often.
- should consume 0.5 - 1.0 lb. of milk daily
What is the recommended protein level of creep rations for lambs under 50lbs? _____ - _____ %
How much should a lamb be eating of concentrate at 21 days? ____lb
How much concentrate should a lamb be eating at 45-60 days? _____lb
What should the Calcium to Phosphorus ratio be in a beginning lamb ration?
3 to 1 calcium to phosphorus
What is the recommended protein level of creep rations for lambs over 50 lbs?_____ - _____%
14 - 18 % depending upon body weight and frame size
Why are there 6-9 different rations sheep are given while being fed in a feed lot?
Microflora: must gradually adjust rumen microflora to igh concentrate diets to prvent acidosis
A starter ration for sheep would be ___ -___ % Roughage and ___ - ___% concentrate.
- 70 - 80% Roughage
- 20-30 % concentrate
A finishing ration for sheep would generally be ___- ___% roughage and ___- ___% concentrate.
- 15-30% roughage
- 70-85% concentrate
What would be the CP% of most rations fed to lambs in the feed lot?
14-18% depending on body weight and frame size
Why is ammonium chloride included in all finishing rations for lambs?
Urinary Calculi: by adding ammonium cloride to rations at a 0.5% concentration the urine is acidified and will aid in the prevention of calculi (stone) to form
At what concentration is ammonium cloride added to finishing rations?
What is urinary calculi?
- calculi (stones) that form and get lodged inthe urinary tract preventing urination.
- Stones are generally comprised of phosphate salts.
What are major causes of urinary calculi?
- Calcium to Phosphorus ratio: if ratio is low phosphate salts will be more likely to from.
- High grain, low roughage diets: ( like finishing rations or show rations) decrease the formation of saliva and therefore, increase the exretion of phosphorus through the urine
- Low water consumption: increased susceptibility