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  1. Fungi-movie
    don't Have leaves, have gills, one purpose-spore dispersal, 10,000 spores a day, an earthstar fungi-disperses by the rain. Some spread by insects-fly and stinkhorn fungi
  2. What delicate threads make up the fungi?
    Hyphae- individual threads

    Mycelium= Mass of hyphae
  3. What are some characteristics of fungi?
  4. -All true fungi are filamentous or unicellular heterotrophs, most of which absorb their food in solution through cell walls.
    • -Chitin in cell walls
    • -All are filamentous, with the exception of some chytrids and all yeasts.
    • -Most lack motile cells.
  5. What are Chiytrids? Name characteristics.
  6. •Simple, mostly one-celled organisms
    • •Some are parasitic, and other are saprobic.
    • –Saprobic - Feed on nonliving organic material
    • •Some consist of a spherical cell with colorless, branching threads (rhizoids) at one end for anchorage.
    • •Some develop short hyphae or even complete mycelia that are coenocytic.
    • –Coenocytic - Without crosswalls
  7. How do chiytrids reproduce?
    • -•Many reproduce only asexually through the production of zoospores within a spherical cell.
    • •Sexual reproduction by fusion of haploid gametes
    • •Zygote undergoes meiosis and is often a resting spore.
  8. Which fungi are responsible for the death of many ampbinians?
    Chytrids by Chytridiomycosis
  9. What are Zygomycota? Name some characteristics
  10. •Black bread molds - Best-known members of this phylum
    • –Rhizopus - Well-known and found everywhere
    • •Coenocytic hyphae with numerous haploid nuclei
  11. How does zygomycota reproduce?
    Asexual reproduction: –Sporangiophores grow upright and produce sporangia at tips.Black spores formed in sporangia

    • -Sexual reproduction by conjugation
    • –Thick wall forms around coenozygote¬† = zygosporangium containing numerous diploid nuclei.
    • -Meiosis forms spores in sporangia on sporangiophores
  12. What is zygomocota commonly called? and what is it's relevance in human ecology?
    -called The coenocytic true fungi

    • –Food sources
    • oTempeh in Indonesia (soy beans + Rhizopus)
    • –Industrial uses
    • oPharmaceuticals
    • «Some steps in manufacture of birth control pills and anesthetics
    • oPigments
    • «Yellow pigment for coloring margarine
  13. what are ascomycota? Name characteristics
    -The ascomycetes (sac fungi)-like the morel

    • •Truffles are reproductive bodies.
    • •Also includes yeasts, powdery mildews, ergot, and morels
    • vMost produce mycelia with hyphae partitioned into individual cylindrical cells.
  14. How does ascomycota reproduce?
    • Asexual reproduction:
    • •Single or chains of conidia produced at tips of hyphae called conidiophores.
    • •Budding - Yeasts

    • •Sexual reproduction:
    • –Antheridium and ascogonium from two hyphae connect.
    • –Male nuclei migrate into ascogonium where nuclei pair, but do not unite.
    • –Ascogenous hyphae, whose cells contain one male and one female nucleus, grow from ascogonium.
    • –Ascoma forms, with hymenial layer composed of sacs called asci (singular: ascus).
  15. What are Human and ecological relevance of ascomycota
    • oMorels and truffles
    • oYeast
    • «Fermentation produces ethyl alcohol - Wines, beers
    • «CO2 causes bread dough to rise and gives it porous texture.

    • •Human and ecological relevance:
    • –Ergot fungus may infect rye and other grains.
    • oErgotism may occur in those who eat the contaminated bread.
    • oErgot drugs are medicinally useful in small doses.
    • -Initial source for the manufacture of LSD
    • –Plant diseases - Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight
  16. What was to blame for salem witchtrials?
    ergotism- in the grain
  17. What are basidiomycota? Name some Characteristics
    • -Club Fungi
    • •Includes mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, smuts, jelly fungi
    • •Hyphae divided into individual cells.
  18. How do basidiomycota reproduce?
  19. •Asexual reproduction:
    • –Infrequent
    • oMainly through conidia
    • •Each cell of hyphae contain a single haploid nucleus = monokaryotic hyphae.
    • •Sexual reproduction:
    • –Hyphae of individual mating types unite and initiate a new mycelium, called dikaryotic hyphae, in which each cell has one nucleus from each original mating type.
  20. What composes the mushroom?
  21. -Mushroom composed of cap = pileus, stalk = stipe, and annulus (collar originally connecting cap to stalk).
    oGills - Plates that radiate out from stalk on underside of cap
  22. Discuss Sexual reproduction of basidiomycota?
  23. –Basidia (swollen ends of hyphae) on gills
    • –The two nuclei in each basidium unite and the resulting diploid nucleus undergoes meiosis.
    • –4 resulting basidiospores sit on sterigmata at tip of basidium.
  24. What are fairy rings?
  25. •Fairy rings - Dikaryotic hyphae radiate out from starting point, producing basidiomata.
    From basidiomycota.
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