Speech Final

  1. shock jock syndrom 
    bad language, crude humor
  2. Jargon
    insider word specific to situation
  3. Parallelism
    the structure is similar
  4. intonation
    the pattern or melody of pitch changes in connected speech
  5. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
    Physical needs > safety > social needs > self estiem > self actualization
  6. evidence`
    external- facts, stats, scholarly journals, survyes

    internal- what the audience already believes and values, opinion
  7. Elaboration likelyhood model
    You persuade audiences through one of two routes

    • 1. Central Processing- involve the mind, logic, reason
    • 2. Peripheral Processing- involve entertainment value, personal style, used to hook audience 
  8. warrent
    reasons why the evidence works
  9. claim 
    an assertion of something as fact 
  10. Cognitive dissonance
    challenging audiences comfort
  11. Writing speeches for the ear"
    • Word choice should be familiar 
    • sentences
    • repetition
    • sentence fragments and phrases
    • personal pronouns
    • concrete or abstract words
    • vivid language, imagry
    • figurative language
  12. Denotation vs connotation
    • Dictionary vs word or phrase in association 
    • angry vs irate 
  13. Characteristics of the speakers voice
    • Volume
    • Rate
    • Pitch
    • Pauses (strategic)
    • Vocal Variety- use of all of the above
    • Avoid Monotone 
  14. Body language
    • facial expression
    • eye contact
    • smile 
    • gesture
  15. alliteration
    repetition of consonant sounds
  16. fact
    something that is documented
  17. concrete words
    words that refer to tangible objects
  18. Abstract words
    words that refer to ideas or concepts
  19. clutter
    discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea
  20. cliche
    a trite or overused expression
  21. rythem
    the pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words
  22. antithesis
    the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure
  23. extemporaneous speech
    a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is pressented from a brief set of notes
  24. convesational quality
    pressenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed
  25. kinesics
    the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication
  26. gestures
    motions of a speakers hands or arms during a speech
  27. process
    a systematic series of actions that leads to a speccific result or product 
  28. persuation
    the process of creating reinforcing or changing peoples beliefs or actions
  29. mental dialog with the audience
    the mental give and take between speaker and listener during a persuasive speech
  30. question of value 
    a question about the worth rightness morality and so forth of an idea or action 
  31. question of policy 
    a question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken
  32. speech to gain passive agreement
    a pursuasive speech in which the speakers goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without encouraging the audience to take action in support of the policy
  33. speech to gain immediate action
     a pursuasive speech in which the speakers goal is to convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy
  34. need
    the first basic issue in analyzing a question of policy
  35. burden of proof
    the obligation facing a pursuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary
  36. plan 
    the second basic issue in analyzing a question of policy
  37. practicallity
    the thrid basic issue in analyzing a question of policy 
  38. monroes motivated sequence 
    a method of organizing persuasive speeches that seek immediate action. Five steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action
  39. ethos
  40. initial credibility 
    the credibility of a pseaker before she or he starts to speak
  41. derived credibility
    the credibility of a speaker produced by everything she says and does during the speech
  42. terminal credibility 
    the credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech
  43. creating common ground
     a technique in which a speaker connects himself or herself with the values, attitdues, or experiences of the audience
  44. logos
    logical appeal of a speaker
  45. reasoning from specific instances
    reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion
  46. reasoning from principle
    reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion
  47. fallacy
    an error in reasoning
  48. hasty generalization
    a fallacy in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion without sufficient evidence
  49. invalid analogy
    an analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike
  50. false cause
    a fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second
  51. ad hominem
    attacks personinstead of issue
  52. either or 
    forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist
  53. slippery slope
    a fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented
  54. pathos
    emotional appeal 
Card Set
Speech Final