Bio Chapter 12

  1. transformation
    process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
  2. bacteriophage
    virus that infects bacteria
  3. nucleotide
    monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
  4. base pairing
    principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine
  5. chromatin
    granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
  6. histone
    protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
  7. replication
    copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
  8. pinocytosis
    process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment
  9. DNA polymerase
    enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
  10. gene
    sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
  11. messenger RNA (mRNA)
    RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
  12. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
  13. transfer RNA (tRNA)
    type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
  14. transcription
    process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
  15. promoter
    region of DNA that indicates to enzyme where to blind to make RNA
  16. intron
    sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
  17. exon
    expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
  18. codon
    three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
  19. anticodon
    group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
  20. mutation
    change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
  21. point mutation
    gene mutation involving changes in one or a few nucleotides
  22. frameshift mutation
    mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
  23. polyploidy
    condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
  24. operon
    group of genes operating together
  25. differentiation
    process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
  26. hox genes
    series of genes that controls the differentiation of cells and tissues in an embryo
Card Set
Bio Chapter 12
Bio Vocab. Unit 4