ch19 exam6

  1. What hormones does the hypothalamus secrete?
    • ADH
    • oxytocin
    • regulatory hormones
  2. What hormones does the pituitary gland secrete?
    • ACTH
    • FSH
    • TSH
    • LH
    • GH
    • MSH
    • PRL
    • ADH
    • oxytocin
  3. What hormones do the thymus secrete?
  4. What hormones do the thyroid gland secrete?
    • T4
    • T3
    • CT
  5. What hormones does the Pineal Gland secrete?
  6. What hormones does the Saprarena gland secrete?
    • E
    • NE
    • cortisol
    • corticosterone
    • aldosterone
    • androgens
  7. What hormones does the Parathyroid gland secrete?
  8. What hormones does the heart secrete?
    • ANP
    • BNP
  9. What hormones do the kidneys secrete?
    • EPO
    • calcitriol
  10. What hormones does adipose tissue secrete?
    • leptin
    • resistin
  11. What hormones do the testes secrete?
    • androgens
    • inhibin
  12. What hormones do the ovaries secrete?
    • estrogen
    • progestins
    • inhibin
  13. What hormones doe the pancreatic islets secrete?
    • insulin
    • glucagon
  14. What are peptide hormones?
    • largest group
    • in pituitary gland
  15. What secretes steroid hormones?
    • reproductive organs
    • suprarenal glands
  16. Where are steroid hormones derived from?
  17. What is the function of eicosanoids?
    • coordinate cellular activity
    • affect enzymatic processes
  18. What are target cells?
    • peripheral cells
    • respond to presenceof hormones
  19. What regulates endocrine reflexes?
    negative feedback
  20. What are the triggers of endocrine reflexes?
    • humoral stimuli
    • neural stimuli
    • hormonal stimuli
  21. What are humoral stimuli?
    changes in composition of extracellular fluid
  22. What are hormonal stimuli?
    the arrival or removal of specific hormones
  23. What are neural stimuli?
    arrival of neurotransmitters at neuroglandular junctions
  24. What is significant about positive feedback?
    • the only process that must be rushed to complete
    • the secretion of a hormone triggers an effect that further stimulates hormone releases
  25. What is ADH?
    anti- diuretic hormone
  26. What is APH?
  27. What are the methods that the hypothalamus uses to  regulate activities of neurons?
    • secrete regulatory hormones
    • release ADH and oxytocin into pituitary
    • ANS center
  28. What is an example of positive feedback?
    Oxytocin during labor triggers uterine contractions, which cause more secretions of oxytocin
  29. What do regulatory hormones do?
    control activities of endocrine cells in the pituitary gland
  30. What are the classes of regulating hormones?
    • releasing hormones
    • inhibiting hormones
  31. What does ADH respond to?
    • increase in electrolytes in blood
    • decrease in blood volume
    • decrease in BP
  32. What is the primary function of ADH?
    • decrease amnt of water lost in kidneys
    • constrict blood vessels to increase BP
  33. What does oxytocin do?
    stimulates contraction of uterine muscles, myoepithelial cells, and the prostate gland
  34. What is TSH?
    thyroid stimulating hormone
  35. What type of cells release thyroid hormone?
  36. What is ACTH?
    adreno-corticotropic hormone
  37. What is the function of TSH?
    release steroid hormones by suprarenal gland
  38. What type of cells release ACTH?
  39. Where do hormones leave from?
  40. Where do hormones enter?
    the bloodstream
  41. what does a hormone d once it gets to its target hormone?
    causesit to respond?
  42. What are the 4 groups that hormones are organized into?
    • amino acid derivatives
    • peptide hormones
    • steroid hormones
    • eicosanoids
  43. Describe amino acid deriviatives.
    • protein based
    • structurally similar to amino acids
  44. What are examples of amino acid derivatives?
    • thyroid hormones
    • suprarenal medulla hormones
    • melatonin
  45. Describe peptide hormones.
    • chains of amino acids
    • in pituitary
  46. What are examples of peptide hormones?
    all hormones in pituitary gland
  47. Where are examples of steroid hormones?
    • reproductive hormones
    • suprarenal cortex horones
  48. Where are eicosanoids derived from?
    arachidonic acid
  49. What is arachidonic acid?
    a fatty acid of cell membranes
  50. What are examples of eicosanoids?
    • prostaglandin
    • leukotrienes
    • thromboxane
  51. What does prostaglandin do?
    inhibits pain
  52. What do leukotrienes do?
    blood cells production
  53. What does thromboxane do?
  54. What does the ANS center of the hypothalamus do?
    controls the suprarenal medulla
  55. The pituitary gland is the ______, which is...?
    • hypophysis
    • an extension of the nervous system and gland tissue
  56. Where is the pituitary gland?
    • attched to hypothalamus via infundibulum
    • sits in sella turcica
  57. What are the two lobes of the pituitary gland?
    • adenohypophysis
    • neurohypophysis
  58. Describe the adenohypophysis?
    • anterior lobe of pituitary gland
    • releases 9 peptide hormones
  59. Describe the neurohypophysis?
    • posterior lobe of pituitary gland
    • releases 2 peptide hromones
  60. Fnctions of neurohypophysis:
    • release ADH
    • release oxytocin
  61. What does the release of ADH do?
    • targets nephrons of kidneys
    • causes kidneys to retain water
    • constricts blood vessels
  62. What does the release of oxytocin do?
    • targets smooth muscles of uterus (so it contarcts)
    •              contractile cells of mammary glands (myoepithelial cells secrete milk)
    •              contarcts smooth muscles of prostate gland
  63. What is the adenohypophysis controlled by?
    secretions of regulatory hormones from the hypothalamus
  64. What is the hypophyseal portal system? Where is it?
    within infundibulum is a plexus of  fenestrated capillaries
  65. How do regulatory hormones get to the adenohypophysis?
    • leave through the hypothalamus
    • pass through through portal vessles
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ch19 exam6
ch19 exam6