VT-Vaccination and Immunity

  1. Defin Immunity.
    Biological term- describes state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infx, dz or other unwanted biological invasion
  2. Define Vaccine.
    Biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease
  3. Are vaccines 100% safe?
  4. What are the contraindications for vaccines?
    • Immunosupression
    • Parasitic Burden
    • Stress
    • Malnutrition
    • Diseased
    • Abscess at inoculations site
    • Pyrexia
  5. Define Pathogen.
    An infections agent
  6. What is a primary pathogen?
    A pathogen that casues disease almost every time it invades
  7. What is a opprotunistic pathogen?
    a microbe that normally would not cause disease, but could if the animal is comprimised
  8. What can make an animal comprimised?
    stress, any immunodeficiency
  9. Define Antigen.
    foreign substance that initiates an immune response
  10. Define antibody.
    Proteins- immunoglobulins
  11. Define Virulence.
    The pathogenic ability of a microbe to cause or spread dz
  12. Define Adjuvent.
    Agent that may be added to a vaccine to heighten immune response.
  13. Define Titer.
    Antibody levels within serum.
  14. What are the two types of immunity?
    Non specific and Specific
  15. What is Non specific immunity? Give ex.
    • Passive immunity- what you are born with
    • Ex: Skin, MM, secretions, cilia
  16. What is specific immunity? Give ex.
    • Active/Aquired immunity- through exposure or being given
    • Ex: lymphocytes & specific antibodies
  17. What is actively aquired immunity?
    • Develops over lifetime- long term
    • Comes from exposure
    • Antigen causes antibody production
    • Memory Exists
    • Can be natural or artificial
  18. What are some examples of active immunity?
    • (Natural) when you come into contact with the disease many times, whether it be in school, at work
    • (Artificial) through a vaccine
  19. What is passively aquired immunity?
    • Recieving antibodies from another individual (mom, vaccine)
    • Short term
    • Immediate onset
    • No memory exists
    • Can be natural or artificial
  20. What are some examples of passive immunity?
    • (Natural) mother to offspring through colostrum
    • (Artificial) from animal, and medical procedure- Blood transfusion/organ transplant
  21. What is a naturally aquired immunity?
    immunity aquired during normal biological experiences
  22. Ex of naturally aquired immunity.
    • Ex:
    • (Passive) While in mother- placenta and colostrum contains antibodies
  23. What is a artificially aquired immunity?
    an immunity aquired through a medical procedure
  24. Ex of artificially aquired immunity.
    • Ex:
    • (Passive) From animal to animal by our means
    • (Active) Vaccine made in a lab
  25. EX of natural active
    Dog gets parvo from another dog
  26. EX of artifical active
    • Dog get vaccinated for parvo
    • Horse gets tetanis ANTITOXIN
  27. EX of natural passive
    Foal gets maternal antibodies through colostrum
  28. What are some relatively normal side effects from vaccines?
    • Fever
    • Lethargy
    • Local reactions -tenderness, slight swelling
    • Vomiting
  29. When do normal side effects dissipate?
    24-48 hours
  30. What are problem side effects that would bring an animal back to the hospital or be considered an emergency?
    • Anaphalaxis (immediate)
    • Dyspnea
    • Immune disease
    • Sarcomas
    • IMHA (immune mediated hemolytic anemia)
  31. Where does a vaccine normally get stored before and after reconstitution?
    in the fridge, NEVER THE FREEZER
  32. How long after reconstitution should a vaccine be used by? How do you handle them?
    1 hour, keep light protected!
  33. Should you mix vaccines on your own? how much of each dose do you use?
  34. What goes in the charts after giving a vaccine?
    • On sticker {Serial #, Lot #, Manufacturer, Exp. date}
    • date, inj site, how much was given, initials
  35. What are the 9 types of vaccines?
    • Killed (inactivated)
    • Attenuated (MLV, weakened)
    • Live
    • Recombinant
    • Toxoids
    • Antitoxins
    • Antiserum
    • Autogenous
    • Polyvalent
  36. What is a killed vaccine?
    • Chemically or heat killed virus
    • Safe
    • Need repeated doses
    • Have adjuvents
  37. What are the 2 types of adjuvents used in a killed vaccines?
    • Bacterin- entire bacteria is used
    • Subunit- only part of microbe is used
  38. EX of killed vaccine?
  39. What is an attenuated vaccine?
    • Modified Live Vaccine
    • Replicates within pt to produce immunity
    • Longer lasting immunity, efficient
    • Can get disease, abortion, infertility, allergic reactions
  40. What is a live vaccine?
    • May be virulent (spreadable) or avirulent
    • Longer lasting, efficient, inexpensive
    • No adjuvents
  41. What is a recombinant vaccine?
    • Gene, or part of gene that causes disease is used
    • Effective, few side effects, expensive
  42. When are recombinant vaccines contraindicated?
    When there is an autom immune problem
  43. What is a toxoid vaccine?
    • Used against toxins, not microbe itself
    • Short term
    • May contain adjuvents
  44. What is an antitoxin vaccine?
    • Contains antibodies from another animal
    • Short term, Passive imm.
    • May contain preservatives
  45. Ex of antitoxin
  46. What is an antiserum vaccine?
    • Antibody rich serum from infx animal
    • Passive, short term, came from another animal
    • May contain preservatives
  47. What is an autogenous vaccine?
    • Prepared from cultures of an infx agent from patient
    • Produced for specific disease in a specific area
    • Adjuvents, used w. caution
  48. EX of autogenous
    Mad Cow dz
  49. What is a polyvalent vaccine?
    • Multiple vaccines
    • Convenient
  50. EX of polyvalent
    • DHLPP 5 way- aka DA2PPL
    • FVRCP (-C) 4 way (5 way)
  51. What are the 2 parts of a vaccine?
    • Diluent- liquid
    • Dessicant- solid/dry
    • AKA cake
  52. What are the routes a vaccine can't be given?
    • IV
    • IO
    • Subdermal (causes problems, finishing supply)
  53. What are the 2 routes that don't require a needle?
    IN, Sub-D
  54. What is a core vaccine?
    A highly recommended vaccine
  55. What is a major non-core vaccine?
    a vaccine that is highly recommended in certain localities
  56. What is a minor non-core vaccine?
    a vaccine that is only recommended for client/pt. lifestyles
  57. What is a not recommended vaccine?
    • a vaccine that has cons that out weigh pros.
    • (side effects, efficacy)
  58. What is the only vaccine required by law?
  59. What are the canine core vaccines?
    • Parvovirus
    • Distemper virus
    • Hepatitis (adenovirus 2)
    • Rabies
  60. What are the canine non-core vaccines?
    • Bordetella (bronchiseptica)
    • Lyme dz (Borrelia)
    • Lepto
    • Parainfluenza
    • Distempter MEASLES
  61. What are the canine not recommended vaccines?
    • CAV-1 (Adenovirus type 1, covered by type 2 vaccine)
    • CCV-1 (corona virus)
    • Giardia
  62. What are the feline core vaccines?
    • Panleukopenia (feline parvovirus/distemper)
    • Herpes virus-1 (FHV, Feline Rhinotracheitis)
    • Calicivirus (FCV)
    • Rabies
  63. What are the feline non-core vaccines?
    • FeLV (feline Leukemia virus)
    • FIV (feline immunodeficiency virus)
    • Chlamydophila
    • Bordetella
  64. What are the feline not reccomended vaccines?
    • FIP
    • Giardia
  65. What is the Rabies schedule?
    Given w. 12 week booster then every year after that
  66. What is the canine normal vaccine schedule?
    • 6weeks- combo
    • every 3-4 weeks- booster
    • until 12 weeks= last booster + rabies
    • +/- Lepto, lyme and coronavirus
  67. How often are non-core vaccines given, if risk factor is high?
    Every year
  68. How often do dogs that are boarded or in shows get boredetella and para. boosters?
    Every 6 mo.
  69. What is the feline normal vaccine schedule?
    • 6-7 w.- 1st combo
    • every 3-4 w.= booster
    • until 12 w.= + rabies
    • 13 w.- +/- chlamydia and FeLV (high risk)
  70. What are the 7 variables with vaccinations?
    • Age
    • Breed
    • Health Status
    • Risk
    • Type of vaccine
    • Breeding animal
    • Geological area
  71. Where is Rabies usually given in dogs?
    • RRR-Rabies Right Rear
    • Right Rear
  72. Where is DHLPP usually given in dogs?
    • Distemper is "Right Fore" legs
    • Right Front
  73. Where is Lepto/Bordetella given in dogs?
    • "Left Fore" other things
    • Left Front
  74. Where is Rabies usually given in cats?
    • RRR
    • Right Rear
  75. Where is FVRCP usually given in cats?
    • Distemper is "Right Fore" Cats
    • Right Front
  76. Where is FeLV/FIV usually given in cats?
    • Leukemia= Left Rear
    • Left Rear
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VT-Vaccination and Immunity