How many sheep compare nutritionally with Cattle?
Five ewes = 1 cow
How many ewes are equivalent to one beef cow?
Five ewes = one cow
What is the differance in reproductive ability between white faced ewes and black-faced ewes?
- Black Faced: bf breeds are anestrous in the spring (will not breed to lamb in the fall)
- White Faced: wf breeds are not anestrous in the spring (will breed year round)
Why is it important for breeders to lamb certain times of the year?
- Marketing: sheep born in the fall of the year are ready to market during the historically highest month of demand April. this means they generally get a higher price.
- Take advantage of wheat pasture
What is the most common limiting nutrien in sheep?
Energy: although not a nutrient, the most common limiting nutritional factor for sheep is Energy
Name the three most critical periods during the productiive cycle of a breeding ewe.
- 1. Flushing
- 2. Late Gestation
- 3. Early lactation
Feeding a diet with enhanced energy that causes rapid weight gain prior to and during the early stages of the breeding season is called ___________?
What affect does age have on flushing ability?
- Mature ewes: respond better to flushing than do
- Yearling ewes: do not respond as well to flushing
What affect does body condition proir to the breeding season have on flushing ability?
Thin ewes respond better than Fat ewes
Flushing results in an overall increase in conception rate of ______ to ______%
5 to 15 % increase in pregnancy rate
Flushing results in an overall increase of twin births by _____ to _____%
5 to 25 % increase in twin births result from flushing.
____________ _____________ is a nutritional condition caused by a lack of usable carbohydrates (sugars, starches) and generally occurs in thin, poor conditioned ewes, particularly in older ewes or ewes carrying multiple fetuses.
What is another name for pregnancy toxemia?
What are three causes of Pregnancy Toxemia (Ketosis)?
- 1. Low energy diet
- 2. twins or triplets
- 3. Overfat or thin ewes
What are three symptoms of Pregnancy Toxemia (Ketosis)?
- 1. Ewes Isolate themselves from herd
- 2. Increased respiration rate, nasal discharge muscle tremors and convulsions
- 3. Fatty (yellow) livers due to increased fat deposition
What is another name for pregnancy toxemia or ketosis?
Twin Lamb Disease
What is the nutrient requirment for ewes nursing a single vs. twins for a 154lb ewe?
- Single: 3.6lbs DM/day
- Twins: 4.0lbs DM/day
What effect does suckling rate have on milk productio of the ewe?
ewes will adjust lactaion levels to meet the needs f the labs nursing
Do dams of singles give the same amount of milk as if they had twins?
- no, ewes suckling twins will typically produce 20-40% more milk thatn a ewe suckling a single
- ewes have a genetic ability to produce x amount of milk. however they will only produce to that amount if their supply is challenged by the lamb nurshing.
Weaning is generally at _____to _____weeks.
8 - 12 weeks of age
Is the composition of the protean feed important?
No, ruminal microbial population capable of synthiesizing microbial protein from available ammonia from protin degradation and volatile fatty acids derived from carbohydrate, protein and lipid digestion by the microorganisms
How are microbes used as protein sources within ruminal animals?
- Microbes are flushed out of the rumen with digesta and killed by acidity of the abomasum.
- Microbes are digested in the small intestine as a protein source by enzymes secreted by the pancreas
- Amino acids are absorbed in the small intestine
Can urea be fved to sheep?
- Yes, however NPN sources are utilized a a poor rate due to slow degradation of cellulose.
- best used in finishing rations with high amounts of cereal grains that provide a spike in carbon skeletons.
How much NPN should be utilized in sheep diets?
- less than 1/3 of total nitrogen in the diet
- Never utilize more than 1% NPN of the total ration or greater than 3% of the total concentrate portion of the ration.
- Adequate sources of readily available carbohydrates as well as sulfur are required for optimal microbial growth and protein synthesis
What minerals are important in sheep nutrition?
Why is phosphorus important in a sheep diet?
- Needs to be added to mineral mix because it is found in low quantities in forages.
- recomended a 2 to 1 ratio of calcium to phosphorus in main herd
- recommended a 3-4 to 1 ratio of calcium to phosphorus ratio in finnishing and show lamb rations
What volume of salt is required for sheep?
- 0.25 to 0.4 oz. of salt required per day
- 0.5% of total ration
- 1.0% of concentrate mix
What is the requirnment of calcium in a sheep diet?
- do not need to add to mineral mix with on forage because of high levels found in forage
- need to keep a 2 to 1 ratio with calcium and phosphorus
- need a 3-4 to 1 ratio of calcium to phosphorus with finnishing and show lambs
Where is Magnesium needed in the sheep diet?
- Helps prevent grass tetany (hypomagnesemia) caused by lush vegetative pasture that are high in crude protein content but low in magnesium levels
- occurrence is highest during the first 4-5 weeks of lactation
- addition of 15 - 25% magnesium oxide or sulfate to mineral supplements will aid in prevention
What do we need to know about copper in a sheep diet?
- Delicate balance between copper requirement and copper toxicity
- Do not use cattle mineral supplements containing copper as a source of minerals for sheep
What levels are normal and toxic for copper concentrations within a sheep liver?
- Normal Liver = 12 ppm
- Copper toxicity = 25 ppm
What mineral is associated with copper absorption?
- Molybdenum: forms an insoluble coplex with copper
- Reduces the amount of copper that is absorbed
What is Selenium associated with in sheep?
- White muscle disease (nutritional muscular dystrophy)
- Associated with Vitamin E
- Requirment is greater than 0.1 ppm selenium less than that will cause deficiencies
- Affects lambs under 8 weeks of age
What is white muscle disease?
- selenium deficiency associated with the degeneration of the cardiac and skeletal musculature
- Nuritional muscular dystrophy
- affects lambs under 8 weeks of age
- associated with vitamin E