Intro Final#2

  1. Carlo Ruini
    Author of Anatomy of the Horse
  2. Varro
    Greek historian who in 100 B.C. coined the term “hippiatroi” or horse doctor for individuals who treated horses
  3. Vegetius
    4th century Roman author who published a book on the diseases of horses and mules
  4. 1818
    The Veterinarian, 1st English veterinary journal
  5. 1877
    America’s 1st veterinary journal
  6. 1880
    The Federal meat inspection system was implemented because transported cattle infected with ticks were infecting the cattle as well as humans at the new location
  7. 1888
    F.L. Kilborune, DVM discovered the causative agent for Texas fever (Bovine Piroplasmosis)
  8. 1879
    Iowa State opened
  9. 1916
    Texas A&M opened
  10. By 1924 all programs had closed – why?
    • In 1913 we had the industrial revolution and mechanized transportation which made the horse population drop dramatically. Veterinarians were not needed and so
    • the schools closed
  11. Presently there are how many Veterinarian Colleges in the U.S
  12. 1961
    State University Agricultural & Technical College, Delhi, New York
  13. 1965
    AVMA ruled against regulating technical schools
  14. 1967
    AVMA Council on Education charged with responsibility for accrediting technical programs
  15. 1968
    AVMA adopted title of animal technician
  16. 1972
    Guidelines for Employing Animal Technicians published
  17. 1975
    Committee on Animal Technician Activities and Training (CATAT) was established
  18. 1976
    CATAT was recognized by the U.S. Department of Education as the accrediting body for veterinary technology programs.
  19. 1978
    Professional Examination Service administered the first National Exam for veterinary technicians
  20. 1981
    • NAVTA (National Association of  Veterinary
    • Technicians of America)
  21. 1990
    NAVTA mission statement formulated
  22. 1992
    AVMA and NAVTA form an alliance
  23. 1993
    NAVTA represented the US at the International Veterinary Nursing Congress in London
  24. CATAT is now known as _______________.
    Committee on Veterinary Technician Education and Activities (CVTEA).
  25. List 8 types of aggression.
    • 1. Pain-induced
    • 2. Maternal
    • 3. Predatory
    • 4. Territorial
    • 5. Males
    • 6. Dominance
    • 7. Protection
    • 8. Fear – #1 cause of aggression.
  26. What are 3 reasons for restraint?
    Examination, Control and to Prevent injury to animal or human.
  27. List 4 types of restraints: 
    Gauze muzzle, nylon muzzle, snare
  28. Vein & Location for venipuncture: 
    • Cephalic Front leg,
    • Saphenous hind leg,
    • Jugular Neck
  29. How do you get a fractious cat out of a kennel? (
    • 1) Throw a towel/blanket over the whole cat,
    • (2) use a snare or leash,
    • (3) may require tranquilizer/sedation
    • (4) Ketamine injection/oral admin.
  30. Why is rabies an important disease?  
    • (1) Because it is zoonotic (transfers from animals to humans) and
    • (2) it is fatal
  31. 1946
    Breakout of fox rabies
  32. 1953
    Massive rabies education campaign in Harris County that included: Front page newspaper articles and editorials, Radio announcements, TV broadcasts, Distribution of pamphlets to school children and Broadcast trucks going through neighborhoods
  33. 1884
    Louis Pasteur developed the 1st rabies vaccine without knowing what caused the disease
  34. 1975 – 1977
    large outbreak of rabies cases in El Paso and the western part of the state
  35. 1979
    Rabies Control Act which required all dogs and cats in Texas have rabies vaccination performed by veterinarian. Texas Department of Health was responsible for developing guidelines
  36. 1994/1995
    • Oral rabies vaccination program developed to create a barrier of immune animals in an effort to prevent the spread of rabies in coyotes and foxes. They dropped
    • bait along the border targeting the Rio Grande
  37. 2003
    State law changed to required dogs/cats to be vaccinated at 16 weeks (4 months), annual booster, and then 3 year intervals. However the county or veterinarian could implement an annual requirement at their discretion
  38. Early 50’s to late 50’s (58-59) what location had more documented cases of rabies and why? because they documented and had a higher concentration of pets. This was a time that was transitioning from farms to suburbia
    • Harris County 
    • Because they documented and had a higher concentration of pets. This was a time that was transitioning from farms to suburbia
  39. What are the 2 sources of rabies transmission
    in Harris County 
    #1 bats, #2 skunks
  40. Why was the rabies vaccination timeframe extended to
    3 years? 
    • Because of the reduction in rabies in Texas
    • as a result of the 1995 cases
  41. What are the Rabies control measures: (Harris County Department of Public Health and Environmental
    • 1. State implemented vaccination protocols 4 months, annual booster then 3yr intervals
    •  2. Registration and licensing of all dogs and cats through the Harris County Animal Control or City of Houston depending on where you live.
    • 3. Impound and eliminate all strays
    • 4. Quarantine - If there is no known bite by a rabid animal = 10 days. If there is a bite by a rabid animal = up to 45 days.
  42. What are 3 modes of transmittion of diseases?
    Agent, Host and Environment
  43. List the type of brand/tattoo that you would
    find in the following animals and the location:

    A. Dog/Cat 
    B. Cattle= 
    C. Horse=
    D. Thoroughbred =
    • A. Dog/Cat - microchip on shoulder
    • B. Cattle= hot iron brand
    • C. Horse= freeze brand found under mane on the left side of neck
    • D. Thoroughbred = tattoo on inside upper lip on gumline
  44. What kind of information you do document under
    signalment for blemishes/defects? 
    Amputee, dock tail that is not normally docked, scars discolored hair
  45. What does anamensis mean?
    History taking procedure
  46. What information is documented under signalment?
    Breed, Age, Sex, Color & Markings, Brand or Tattoo, Blemishes and Defects
  47. Integument includes
    Skin and hair
  48. Respiratory includes
    nose, trachea, lungs
  49. Cardiovascular includes
    heart and vessels
  50. Urogenital incudes
    kidneys, urethra, bladder, uterus, mammary glands, testicles
  51. Musculosketal documents 
    Pain and Asymmetry
  52. Nervous includes
    brain, spinal cord, nerves
  53. What do you look for when examining the integument?  
    parasites, ticks, flea debris, hair loss, lesions. 
  54. Auscultation means 
    listening with stethoscope
  55. What is CRT – capillary refill time 
    • indication on how well they are transfusing blood. 1-2 seconds is normal,
    • longer than that it is poor perfusion/low blood volume shorter time is high perfusion
  56. Where do you take the peripheral pulse?
    Horse = 
    Dog/Cat =
    • Horse = Submandibular and Facial Artery. 
    • Dog/Cat = Femoral artery
  57. Leptospirosis – Affects the ______ and _________
    Is it Viral or Bacterial
    • Affects the kidney and liver 
    • Bacterial 
    • Leptospira canicola and Leptospira icterohemorrhagica.
  58. Leptospirosis Incubation:
    5-15 days
  59. Leptospirosis Symptoms
    • Lethargy, anorexia, pyrexia, slight conjunctivitis,
    • icterus, abdominal pain, kidney damage
  60. Leptospirosis Clinical Findings
    • WBC increased, BUN (kidney) and ALT (liver)
    • elevated
  61. Leptospirosis Treatment
    Antibiotics effective for bacterial infection.
  62. A White Blood Cell (WBC) that is increased generally
    means _____________, depressed means _________.
    • bacterial infection 
    • viral infection
  63. Infectious Canine Hepatitis
    Viral or bacteria
    • Viral  
    • Canine Adenovirus 1
  64. Infectious Canine Hepatitis
    4-9 days
  65. Infectious Canine Hepatitis
    lethargy, anorexia, thirst, oculonasal discharge, pyrexia, petechiation of mucus membranes, corneal lesions (nickname =Blue eye), icterus, abdominal pain
  66. Infectious Canine Hepatitis
    Clinical Findings
    leukopenia (low WBC count), altered liver chemistries (ALT)
  67. Infectious Canine Hepatitis
    Fluids (supported therapy) to flush the liver out, antibiotics for opportunistic infections-secondary infections
  68. Kennel Cough
    Bacterial – 
    Viral -
    • Bacterial - Bordetella bronchiseptica (most common)
    • Viral - parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus
  69. Kennel Cough
    5-10 days
  70. Kennel Cough
    Clinical Findings
    slight pyrexia, slight increase in WBC
  71. Kennel Cough
    self – limiting, antibiotics, cough suppressants
  72. Lyme Disease – Mostly in the Northeast States, Colorado.
    Spirochete – Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by ticks
  73. Lyme Disease
    5- 10 days
  74. Lyme Disease
    inflammatory, arthritis
  75. Lyme Disease
  76. What are the 3 Hematological Methods for diagnosing Heartworm disease? 
    Direct Smear – Drop of blood on microscope slide to look for live microfilaria (L1 larvae), 60% effective

    • Millipore filtration/Dye Fill Test –container put filter membrane on it mix blood with lysing solution to destroy red blood cells then run that solution through the filter, take filter off and place that on
    • microscope slide with drop of dye then coverslip to look for dead microfilaria, 85% effective

    • Occult test/SNAP test – ELISA (antigen-antibody
    • response), looking for presence of antibodies, so if animal has adult heartworms in heart, specifically female it will pick up on the antibodies that are being produced by the animal’s body. When test 1st came out in the mid-80s it took over 1 hr to run the test now it only takes 5-6 min. to run the test. 98% effective
  77. Canine Parvovirus
    3-8 days
  78. Canine Parvovirus
    Vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, diarrhea, dehydration
  79. Canine Parvovirus
    Clinical Findings
    Leukopenia (WBC count drops as low as 500), bloody diarrhea (sloughing the intestinal lining/necrotic tissue that has a unique smell), pyrexia, prolonged illness is uncommon, recovery or death within 2 days still sick for another 4-5 days. Generally they die from dehydration.
  80. Canine Parvovirus
    Fluids, antibiotics, anti-emetics
    Written in 1900 B.C. it is the 1st document relating to veterinary medicine which included prognosis and treatment protocols
    •  Stone tablets written in Babylon that outlined the payment schedule for veterinary services. If the
    • animal recovered the owner would pay and if the animal did not the veterinarian would pay the owner.
  83. Sagitta
    for blood letting. It makes a puncture to bleed the animal. Still in existence for religious format.
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Intro Final#2
Final Intro