Biomed final review 3

  1. Define disaccharides.
    They are two monosaccharides joined together, and are the simplest kind of sugar polymers.

    Are formed when two hexoses combined.
  2. Examples of disaccharides:
    • Sucrose
    • Lactose
    • Maltose
  3. Sucrose (table sugar) = ?
    glucose + fructose
  4. lactose (milk sugar) = ?
    glucose + galactose
  5. Maltose = ?
    glucose + glucose
  6. Define dehydration synthesis.
    The bond between the two hexoses occures at a place where the ---OH from the one sugar find the -H from another.  As the two hexoses are combined, a water molecule (HOH) is generated.
  7. Define hydrolysis.
    A water molecule is added to sucrose as it is broken into glucose and fructose.  This is what happens inside our cells as table sugar in the diet is metabolised.
  8. What reaction is caused by hydrolysis?
    Water breaking
  9. In lipids, dehydration synthesis is used to?
    Add fatty acids to glycerol backbones.
  10. In proteins, the bonds that hold amino acid monomers together are formed from dehydration reactions that each create a ...?
    Peptide bond
  11. Define lipids
    Lipids generally contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.  Different proportions that carbohydrates, meaning less oxygen.  They tend to repel water (hydrophobic or non-polar) are used to build cell membranes.
  12. What are polar molecules?
    Charged (+ or - ions) they like being around water, they are hydrophilic.
  13. What are non-polar molecules?
    They are not charged (no ions) They hate being around water, hydrophobic.
  14. What forms do lipids come in?
    fatty acids, phospholipids, tryglycerides, steroids, eicosanoides, other lipids.
  15. lipids are carried in the blood as a complex with specialized protein carriers called ?
  16. Steroids are lipid compounds which include many of
    The hormones as well as cholosterol.
  17. What are body functions of Tryglycerides ?(fats and oils)
    Protection, insulation, energy storage
  18. What are the body functions of fatty acids?
    used to synthesis tryglycerides and phospholipids or catabolized to generate adenosine tryphosphate (ATP)
  19. What are the body functions of phospholipids?
    Major lipid component of cell membranes.
  20. What are the body functions of eicosanoids?
    Have diverse effects on modifying responses to hormones, blood clotting, inflimmation, immunity, stomach acid secretion, airway diameter, lipid breakdown, and smooth muscle contraction.
  21. What are the four lipid categories)
    simple (fats, oils, waxes)compound (phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids)Steroids Misc. (lipoproteins, and fat soluable vitamins
  22. Poly- unsaturated fatty acids
    have multiple kinks that keep the fatty acid molecules from closely packing, and so poly-unsaturated lipids (like olive oil) are liquid at room temp.
  23. Saturated fatty acids
    pack more closely (in the absense of kinks) they are solid at room temp.
  24. Saturated fatty acids are
    those where all the carbons are filled, or saturated, with hydrogen atoms.
  25. unsaturated fatty acids
    are molecules with missing hydrogen atoms.
  26. mono-saturated =
    1 double bond =  1 kink
  27. poly-unsaturated =
    many double bonds = many kinks
  28. fatty acids are:
    come in many different varieties.  Carbon back bones vary from 4 to 20 carbons strong end to end and with hydrogens filling the unused bonds on the carbon atoms.  Each end is in a carboxyl (-COOH) group, which is where the acid part comes in.
Card Set
Biomed final review 3
Biomed final review 3