psych 101 final exam

  1. compare 2 psychological theories (learn 3 though) based on the following;
    Focus and main assumptions
    their methods by which they get that info; how do they assess people
    what is their leaders name?
    any kind of experiment that they did
    the weaknesses and strengths of that theory
    • Psychoanalytic
    • Freud
    • Focus is:Emotional disorders spring from your unconscious, such as unresolved sexual and other childhood conflicts, and fixation at various developmental stages. Defense mechanisms fend off anxiety
    • Assessment by: Free association, projective tests, dream analysis
    • Weakness is that you can’t test it
    • Strength is that it helps reduce anxiety
  2. compare 2 psychological theories (learn 3 though) based on the following;
    Focus and main assumptions
    their methods by which they get that info; how do they assess people
    what is their leaders name?
    any kind of experiment that they did
    the weaknesses and strengths of that theory
    Behavioral Theory!
    • Behavioral
    • Watson and Skinner, Pavlov
    • Focus is: you are what you do; personality does not cause behavior; personality is behavior. Personality is controlled by genetic factors and contingencies in environment
    • Experiments: Baby Albert, Pavlov’s dogs
    • Assess by: lab experiments & observing behavior
    • Strengths: very fact based so it’s easy to prove right or wrong
    • Weakness: doesn’t focus on anything internal
  3. compare 2 psychological theories (learn 3 though) based on the following;
    Focus and main assumptions
    their methods by which they get that info; how do they assess people
    what is their leaders name?
    any kind of experiment that they did
    the weaknesses and strengths of that theory
    humanistic theory!
    • Humanistic
    • Maslow & Rodgers
    • Rather than examining the struggles of sick people, it’s better to focus on the ways healthy people strive for self-realization. Emphasizes human potential and such uniquely human characteristics as self-awareness and free will.
    • Assessment through questionnaires, therapy sessions
    • Weaknesses: they didn’t believe in the use of scientific methods to assess people
    • Strength: personalized therapy. It’s all about you as a person
  4. list 5 risk factors related to suicide
    • Depression
    • Hopelessness
    • Substance abuse
    • Unemployment
    • Homosexuality
  5. structuralism
    Structuralism: school of psychology that aimed to identify the basic elements or structures of psychological experience (take a random object and identify the elements of how people feel about it) Titchner
  6. functionalism
    Functionalism: school of psychology that aimed to understand the adaptive purposes/functions of mental and behavioral processes (adapt, survive and flourish) William James
  7. william wundt
    • developed 1st pychology lab in 1879
    • conducted experiements in Leipzig, Germanystudied mind objectively
    • and scientifically
    • launched psychology as an experimental science
    • graduate students studied "atoms of the mind" used introspection (looking inside yourself for answers, being reflective)
  8. what is an experiement
    controlled condition which an independent variable is manipulated, and changes in a dependent variable are studied. an experiment has 2 parts; there is random assignment and manipulation of variables
  9. neurological system
    2 parts, central and peripheral. Central is spine and brain, peripheralis sensory and motor neurons
  10. 2 parts of peripheral nervous system
    • Peripheral nervous system: somatic and autonomic
    • somatic nervous system: controls movement and behavior; voluntary movements of skeletal muscles. carries messages from CNS to muscles
    • autonomic nervous system : helps us experience and express emotion; controls glands and other muscles of internal organs
  11. definition of psychology today:
    the science of mental processes and behavior
  12. piaget
    father of cognitivism- school of psychology that seeks to describe themental processes involved in thinking that affects behavior
  13. watson
    • 1st behaviorist. psychology is the study of observable, measureable behavior
    • Behaviorism- psychology that aims to uncover the laws oflearning by looking outside the organism such as rewards and punishments in the environment
  14. freud
    Freud: founder of psychoanalysis; school of psychology that attributed thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and its effects on human behavior
  15. William James:
    father of Functionalism-; school of psychology that aimed to understand the adaptive purposes/functions of mental and behavioral processes (adapt, survive and flourish)
  16. Heuristics:
    mental shortcuts that help us make judgments, solve problems, and make sense of our world
  17. Mean:
     the arithmetic average of scores in a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores that were added together
  18. median and mode
    • Median: the middle score in a rank-ordered distribution 
    • Mode: most frequently occurring score in a distribution
  19. axon
    • Axon: sending portion of the neuron 
    • Dendrites: receiving portion of neuron 
    • Neurons: individual nerve cells that form the basic structure of the nervous system
  20. dependent and independent variable
    • Dependent variable: factor that may change in response to an independent variable. in psyc usually behavior or mental process
    • Independent variable: factor that is manipulated by the experimenter. the effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study.
  21. True or false?
    correlation does not mean causation
    an experiment must consist of 2 essential ingredients; random assignment and manipulation of an independent variable
    both are true
  22. human development:
    human development: the study of how behavior changes over time
  23. stranger anxiety:
     the fear, caution, and wariness an infant displays when encountering unfamiliar people
  24. separation anxiety:
     the fear infants display when a familiar caregiver leaves
  25. attachment and Harlow's monky's
    attachment: the strong emotional connection one shares with ones caregivers. Attachment formation experiment by Harlow. The monkeys chose the wire monkeys that had cloth on them instead of the wire monkeys that had food. Contact comfort
  26. Vygotsky
    Russian developmental psychologist that focused on children’s growth by interacting with their environment
  27. Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development in order:
    • sensorimotor
    • preoperational
    • concrete operational
    • formal operational
  28. 2 types of adaptation:
    assimilation is absorbing new info into current knowledge

    accomodation is altering a belief to make it compatible with new experience
  29. 4 Parenting styles
    • 1. Permissive: lenient, affectionate, very little punishment
    • 2. Authoritarian: strict, show litte affection, strong discipline
    • 3. Authoritative: support children, but set firm limits (works best)
    • 4. Uninvolved: neglectful, ignore children (worst)
  30. easy slow to warm up and difficult are examples of
  31. moral development:
     the process of decision making about right or wrong. Kohlberg
  32. preconventional
    and postconventional morality
    • preconventional morality: showing morality to avoid punishment or gain reward (before age 9)
    • conventional morality: social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake (like speed limit. early adolescence)
    • Postconventional morality: based on fundamental human rights & values, follows internal ethical principles that transcend society
  33. 4 types of skin senses:
    • pain
    • warmth
    • cold
    • pressure
  34. Sensation and perception:
    • sensation: detection of physical energy by sense organs
    • perception: brain's organization & interpretation of raw sensory inputs
  35. Gestalt principles
    • Gestalt principles: the perception of objects as wholes within a context, not isolated lines and curves
    • 1. Proximity: are close together
    • 2. similarity: are similar
    • 3. closure: have missing
    • contours
    • 4. figure-ground: a central figure
  36. Freud's 5 stages of development in order
    • oral stage: birth to 18 months: infants obtain pleasure through oral activities such as sucking, chewing, biting, and drinking
    • anal stage: 18 months to 3 yrs. pleasure comes from elimination; focuses on toilet training
    • phallic stage: 3-6 yr olds focuses on genitals; child's unconscious sexual desire for the opposite sex parent
    • latency stage: 6-12 yr olds. sexual impulses are submerged into the unconscious; dormant
    • genital stage: 12- adulthood. sexual impulses reawaken and mature into romantic attraction toward others
  37. teratogen-
    teratogen- any environmental agent (viruses, drugs, stressors, malnutrition, & chemicals) that causes damage during the prenatal period
  38. attachment
    attachment-a close emotional bond between the infant and the caregiver
  39. imprinting -
    the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period early in life
  40. imprinting
    imprinting -the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period early in life
  41. temperament:
    temperament: the inborn predisposition to consistantly behave and react in certain ways. (basically personality)
  42. object permanence:
    object permanence: objects that are out of sight are also out of mind. at the age of 8 months babies understand object permanence, that even if its under a blanket, its not completely gone (peek-a-boo)
  43. transduction:
    transduction: conversion of external energies or substances into a neural impulse that one's brain can interpret
  44. gait control theory:
    gait control theory: our spinal cord contains neurological "gates" that either block pain or allow it to be sensed
  45. true or false?
    taste receptors reproduce themselves every 2 weeks
  46. true or false?
    by late childhood the prefrontal cortex has NOT developed
    true. it doesnt develop till mid 20s
  47. classical conditioning:
    classical conditioning: form of learning which an organism comes to respond with a previously neutral stimulus that is associated with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response
  48. conditioned stimulus:
    conditioned stimulus: initially neutral stimulus, becomes associated with the UCS through conditioning (the bell)
  49. unconditioned stimulus:
    unconditioned stimulus: stimulus (biologically significant) that produces an automatic response (food that makes dog drool)
  50. conditioned response:
    conditioned response: the behavior that is learned in response to the conditioned stimulus (salivate when hears a bell)
  51. unconditioned response:
    unconditioned response: automatic response to a UCS that does not need to be learned (dog drools)
  52. operant conditioning:
    operant conditioning: type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcement or diminished if followed by a punisher (big in education)
  53. positive reinforcement:
    positive reinforcement: the positive outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior. adds something pleasant
  54. negative reinforcement:
    negative reinforcement: removal of a negative outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior. removes something unpleasant (like mom stops nagging when you finally clean your room)
  55. positive punishment:
    positive punishment: administer an aversive stimulus like a spanking or a ticket
  56. Negative punishment:
    Negative punishment:  withdraw a desirable stimulus like time out or revoking driver’s license
  57. Forgetting:
    Forgetting: an inability to retrieve info due to poor encoding, storage, or retrieval
  58. acquisition:
    acquisition: initial learning stage in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place. A Conditioned Response (CR) is established
  59. True or False?
    human beings learn by association
  60. T or F
    in most cases for conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus comes before the unconditioned stimulus
    • true
    • emphasis on the BEFORE. neutral stimulus is BEFORE  uconditional stimulus
  61. T or F?
    automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency. requires attention or conscious effort
    • False
    • automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency DOES       NOT require attention or conscious effort
  62. T or F
    social learning emphasizes observation and imitation
  63. T or F
    in a well-known experiment, Watson played the loud noise when baby albert saw a rat
  64. study of positive behavior is to Pavlov as operant conditioning is to
  65. what psychologist in the 60s determined kids can be violent when watching violent behavior?
  66. intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
    • intrinsic is internal motivation
    • extrinsic is external motivation
  67. factors necessary for classical conditioning (4)
    • the conditioned stimulus must be strong & distinctive enough for the subject to perceive it easily
    • the order in which the CS and the UCS are presented: present CS just before the UCS
    • the amount of time between the occurrence of the CS and the UCS: a fraction of sec. and a few seconds at the most
    • Conditioning is usually cumulative: each trial builds on the learners previous experience.
  68. difference between recall and recognition:
    • recall reproduces learned material
    • recognition just selects previously remembered info from a list of options
  69. encoding
    • encoding: processing the meaning of verbal info by associating it with what we already know
    • storage: the process of keeping or retaining encoded info over time
    • retrieval: the process of reactivation or reconstruction of info from memory storage
  70. mnemonics and examples of some
    • Mnemonics: learning aids, strategies, or devices that enhance recall
    • Examples: I before E except after C, PEMDAS,
  71. Personality:
    Personality: An individual's characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors persisting over time
  72. id
    Id: the basic instincts; primitive impulses; the reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that seeks to satisfy sexual and aggressive drives
  73. ego
    Ego: the boss, the psyche's conscious executive part of personality that mediates among the id, superego, and reality; principal decision maker
  74. Superego
    Superego: conscience; the part of the personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and fore future aspirations
  75. defense mechanisms
    reaction formation
    • Repression: unconscious motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories
    • Reaction Formation: switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites
    • Projection: the unconscious attribution of one's own unacceptable urges or qualities onto others
    • Rationalization: providing a reasonable sounding explanation for unreasonable behaviors
  76. Attribution:
    Attribution: we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
  77. Conformity:
    Conformity: tendency of people to change their behavior because of group influence
  78. cognitive dissonance:
    cognitive dissonance: when our actions are not in harmony with our attitudes
  79. aggression:
    aggression: any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person
  80. prejudiced:
    prejudiced: unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
  81. just world theory:
    just world theory: tendency of people to believe the world is just, people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
  82. who said dreams are royal road to unconscious?
  83. variations of aggression are due to
    • biological influences are
    • genetic factors: heredity
    • neural factors: brain activity
    • biochemistry: hormones

    • psychological/social influences are
    • averse conditions and feeling frustrated
    • getting reinforced for aggressive behavior
    • having aggression modeled at home or in the media
    • adopting social scripts for aggression from culture and the media
  84. Stanley Milgram:
     the people got shocked; people will be directed to do things they shouldn’t
  85. behavioral model of personality;
     you are what you do
  86. True or False
    Freudian psychology and behavioral psychology believe in free will
    FALSE. NEITHER psycho analytic NOR behavioral believed in free will. humanistic emphasizes free will
  87. true or false
    tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to a large request is foot in the door
  88. Fundamental attribution error:
    Fundamental attribution error: OVERESTIMATE disposition and UNDERESTIMATE the situation
  89. Psychotherapy:
     an interactive experience with a trained professional; working on understanding and changing behavior, thinking, relationshiops, and emotions
  90. biomedical therapy:
    biomedical therapy: uses medicine or other procedures that act on the patient’s body, such as the nervous system, in order to reduce the symptoms of mental disorders
  91. Exposure therapy:
    Exposure therapy: expose patients to things they fear and avoid. Through repeated exposures, anxiety lessens because they habituate to the things feared.
  92. cognitive therapy:
    cognitive therapy: helps people alter the negative thinking that worsens depression and anxiety
  93. resistance in psychoanalysis:
    resistance in psychoanalysis: the therapist notices times when the patient seems blocked in speaking about certain subjects
  94. transference:
    transference: occurs when the patient develops positive or negative feelings toward the therapist
  95. rational emotive behavior  therapy (Albert Ellis):
    rational emotive behavior  therapy (Albert Ellis): he showed how depression is worsened by self-defeating assumptions like “everyone hates me”
  96. 4 characteristic of client centered therapy
    • Non-directive: let insight and goals come from the client rather than dictating interpretations
    • Being genuine: be yourself and be truthful; don’t put on a therapist façade
    • Being accepting and showing unconditional positive regard: help client learn to accept themselves despite weaknesses
    • Being empathetic: demonstrate careful attention to clients feeling’s
  97. difference between counselors, psychologists, psychiatrists
    • psychologists: have PhDs mostly. Experts in research, assessment and therapy
    • counselors: work with problems arising from family relations, abusers etc
    • psychiatrists: physicians who specialize in treatment of psychological disorders. Doctors.
  98. Resiliency:
    Resiliency: Personal strength that helps most people cope with stress nad recover from adversity and trauma
  99. Dorthea Dix:
    Dorthea Dix: founded humane movement to care for mentally ill in America
  100. Pinel:
    Pinel: founded humane movement to care for mentally ill in France
  101. psychological disorder-
    any patterns of thoughts feelings, or actions that are deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional. (those three D's are how you know if something is a psychological disorder. all 3 must be present) deviant means differs from the norm
  102. Generalized anxiety disorder:
    Generalized anxiety disorder: persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension
  103. Panic disorder:
    Panic disorder: unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, or other frightening sensations
  104. OCD and difference between obsession and compulsion
    OCD: persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless actions or rituals (compulsions) that causes distress
  105. PTSD:
    PTSD: four or more weeks of the following symptoms after experiences a traumatic event; nightmares, bad memories, social withdrawal, anxiety
  106. Dissociative disorders:
    Dissociative disorders: conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
  107. Major depressive disorder:
    Major depressive disorder: a person experiences a lingering depressed mood or diminished interest in pleasurable activity
  108. Bipolar disorder:
    Bipolar disorder: a mood disorder in which one alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
  109. Schizophrenia:
    Schizophrenia: typical characteristics include, disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, inappropriate emotions and actions, psychotic symptoms- serious distortions reality 
  110. T or F
    people who talk about suicide rarely commit suicide
  111. T or F
    suicide rarely happens without warning
  112. T or F
    a person who commits suicide is mentally ill
  113. T or F
    a time of high suicide risk in depression is at the time when the person  begins to improve
  114. T or F
    most people who attempt suicide fail to kill themselves
  115. T or F
    those who attempt suicide do so only to manipulate others and attract attention to themselves
  116. T or F
    there is a strong correlation between alcoholism and suicide
  117. T or F
    on average each year more people die from homicides than suicides
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psych 101 final exam
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