BUS472 Midterm

  1. A PMO, or Project _______ Office, is an organizational group of responsible for coordinating the project management function throughout an organization.
    • a. Management  
    • b. Money
    • c. Marketing  
    • d. Municipal
  2. In the ___________, you use a similar project's WBS as a starting point.
    • a. bottom-up approach
    • b. analogy approach
    • c. mind-mapping approach
    • d. top-down approach
  3. ___________ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediatelyfollowing activities.
    • a. Total slack
    • b. Free time
    • c. Total float
    • d. Free slack
  4. ____ estimates involve estimating individual work items or activities and summing them to get a project total.
    • a. Actual
    • b. Analogous
    • c. Bottom-up
    • d. Parametric
  5. Activity ____ involves estimating the number of work periods that are needed to complete individual activities.
    • a. duration estimating
    • b. resource estimating
    • c. sequencing
    • d. definition
  6. ____ is a set of shared assumptions, values, and behaviors that characterize the functioning of an organization.
    • a. Organizational philosophy
    • b. Organizational structure
    • c. Organizational politics
    • d. Organizational culture
  7. Project ____ management is concerned with making effective use of the people involved with the project.
    • a. communications
    • b. risk
    • c. procurement
    • d. human resource
  8. A(n) ____ estimate provides an estimate of what a project will cost.
    • a. definitive
    • b. budgetary
    • c. rough order of magnitude
    • d. final
  9. ____ processes are especially important for information technology projects because once a project team implements a new system, it takes a considerable amount of effort to change the system.
    • a. Executing
    • b. Closing
    • c. Initiating
    • d. Planning
  10. Project managers have the least amount of authority in a pure ____ organizational structure.
    • a. circular
    • b. matrix
    • c. project
    • d. functional
  11. A common ____ process is performance reporting, where project stakeholders can identify any necessary changes that may be required to keep the project on track.
    • a. planning
    • b. monitoring and controlling
    • c. executing
    • d. closing
  12. ____ is a problem-solving approach that requires defining the scope of the system, dividing it into its components, and then identifying and evaluating its problems, opportunities, constraints, and needs.
    • a. Systems troubleshooting
    • b. Systems philosophy
    • c. Systems management
    • d. Systems analysis
  13. The goal of ____ is to know the status of the schedule, influence the factors that cause schedule changes, determine that the schedule has changed, and manage changes when they occur.
    • a. activity resource estimating
    • b. activity duration estimating
    • c. schedule development
    • d. schedule control
  14. ____ tools, sometimes referred to as enterprise project management software, provide robust capabilities to handle very large projects.
    • a. High-end
    • b. Midrange
    • c. Inexpensive
    •  d. Low-end
  15. ____ involves allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items to establish a baseline for measuring performance.
    • a. Cost consolidation
    • b. Cost estimating
    • c. Cost control
    • d. Cost budgeting
  16. A(n) ____ estimate is used for making many purchasing decisions for which accurate estimates are required and for estimating final project costs.
    • a. definitive
    • b. budgetary
    • c. final
    • d. rough order of magnitude
  17. A(n) ____occurs when two or more activities follow a single node.
    • a. merge
    • b. conflict
    • c. burst
    • d. combination
  18. A preliminary or rough cost estimate is developed in the ____ phase, and an overview of the work involved iscreated.
    • a. development
    • b. concept
    • c. implementation
    • d. close-out
  19. In a(n) ____ relationship the “from” activity cannot start until the “to” activity is started.
    • a. Finish-to-finish
    • b. Finish-to-start
    • c. Start-to-finish
    • d. Start-to-start
  20. ____ is the earned value minus the actual cost.
    • a. SPI
    • b. CPI
    • c. SV
    • d. CV
  21. ____ costs should be forgotten.
    • a. Direct
    • b. Indirect
    • c. Sunk
    • d. Intangible
  22. The ____ is the ratio of earned value to planned value and can be used to estimate the projected time to complete the project.
    • a. CV
    • b. SPI
    • c. SV
    • d. CPI
  23. A(n) ____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project.
    • a. project scope statement
    • b. work breakdown structure
    • c. project charter
    • d. business case
  24. ____ estimates use the actual cost of a previous, similar project as the basis for estimating the cost of the current project.
    • a. Analogous
    • b. Bottom-up
    • c. Parametric
    • d. Actual
  25. Many companies have realized that information technology is integral to their business and have created a vice president or equivalent-level position for the head of information technology, often called the ____.
    • a. CEO
    • b. CIO
    • c. CFO
    • d. CPO
  26. ____ involves controlling changes to project scope, which is a challenge on many information technology projects.
    • a. Scope verification
    • b. Scope planning
    • c. Scope control
    • d. Scope definition
  27. ____ are those costs that an organization can easily measure in dollars.
    • a. Tangible costs
    • b. Direct costs
    • c. Indirect costs
    • d. Intangible costs
  28. The limitations of scope, time, and cost goals are sometimes referred to as the triple ____.
    • a. constraint
    • b. bind
    • c. obstacle
    • d. threat
  29. A(n) ____ is a hierarchical structure that identifies the project’s resources by category and type.
    • a. network diagram
    • b. work breakdown structure
    • c. critical path analysis
    • d. resource breakdown structure
  30. It is generally most difficult to describe, agree upon, and meet the ____ goal of many projects.
    • a. scope
    • b. time
    • c. cost
    • d. technical
  31. ____ provide(s) a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities andtheir corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format.
    • a. Gantt charts
    • b. Critical path analysis
    • c. PERT analysis
    • d. Critical chain scheduling
  32. In the ____ phase, the project team creates a definitive or very accurate cost estimate, delivers the required work, and provides performance reports to stakeholders.
    • a. development
    • b. concept
    • c. implementation
    • d. close-out
  33. In the ____ phase, the project team creates more detailed project plans, a more accurate cost estimate, and a more thorough WBS.
    • a. implementation
    • b. development
    • c. close-out
    • d. concept
  34. In the example of the project of building a house, the ____ would normally be the general contractor responsible for building the house.
    • a. project manager
    • b. project sponsors
    • c. project team
    • d. support staff
  35. Which of the following processes is a closing process?
    • a. Risk response planning
    • b. Contract closure
    • c. Develop project team
    • d. Integrated change control
  36. The ____ tasks vary the most from project to project.
    • a. executing
    • b. monitoring and controlling
    • c. closing
    • d. planning
  37. The Project Time Management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activity of schedule control.
    • a. initiating 
    • b. planning 
    • c. executing
    • d. monitoring and controlling
  38. ____ issues cause the most conflict over the life of a project.
    • a. Procedures 
    • b. Priorities
    • c. Cost
    • d. Schedule
  39. Which of the following processes is a monitoring and controlling process?
    • a. Risk response planning 
    • b. Develop project team
    • c. Request seller responses
    • d. Integrated change control
  40. The ____ life cycle model uses an approach in which developers work with an evolving prototype.
    • a. Spiral
    • b. incremental build
    • c. Waterfall
    • d. Rapid Application Development
  41. What is the ideal order that project team and key stakeholders should follow to satisfy the triple constraint?
    • a. scope; cost; time 
    • b. time; scope; cost
    • c. scope; time; cost
    • d. cost; time; scope
  42. ____ thinking describes a holistic view of carrying out projects within the context of the organization.
    • a. Organizational 
    • b. Complex
    • c. Systems
    • d. Natural
  43. Project managers have the most authority in a pure ____ organizational structure.
    • a. circular 
    • b. matrix
    • c. project
    • d. functional
  44. Summary charts made with enterprise project management software often show status as green to indicate things are going well, ____ to indicate that there are some problems, and ____ to indicate major problems.
    • a. yellow; red 
    • b. red; yellow
    • c. orange; yellow
    • d. blue; red
  45. Project managers often use the ____ approach for projects that represent entirely new systems or approaches to doing a job, or to help create buy-in and synergy with a project team.
    • a. analogy 
    • b. bottom-up
    • c. top-down
    • d. mind-mapping
  46. Good ____ is very important to project success because it helps improve the accuracy of time, cost, and resource estimates, it defines a baseline for performance measurement and project control, and it aides in communicating clear work responsibilities.
    • a. scope definition
    • b. scope management
    • c. scope verification
    • d. scope planning
  47. A Gantt chart displays a project’s start and finish dates in a ____ format.
    • a. pie chart 
    • b. calendar
    • c. bar graph
    • d. line graph
  48. The critical path is the ____ path through a network diagram, and it represents the ____ time it takes to complete a project.
    • a. longest; longest 
    • b. longest; shortest
    • c. shortest; longest
    • d. shortest; shortest
  49. The ____ provide(s) schedule-related information about each activity, such as predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, constraints, imposed dates, and assumptions related to theactivity.
    • a. activity attributes
    • b. milestones
    • c. activity list
    • d. activity descriptions
  50. A(n) ____ organizational structure is the hierarchy most people think of when picturing an organizational chart.
    • a. functional 
    • b. matrix
    • c. system
    • d. project
  51. ____ involves formalizing acceptance of the project scope. Key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables of the project during this process.
    • a. Scope planning 
    • b. Scope control
    • c. Scope definition
    • d. Scope verification
  52. The Project Cost Management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activities of cost estimating and cost budgeting.
    • a. planning 
    • b. initiating
    • c. monitoring and controlling
    • d. executing
  53. Administrative activities are often involved in ____, such as archiving project files, closing out contracts, documenting lessons learned, and receiving formal acceptance of the delivered work as part of the phase or project.
    • a. executing processes 
    • b. initiating processes
    • c. closing processes
    • d. monitoring and controlling processes
  54. ____ are the people involved in or affected by project activities and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents to the project.
    • a. Directors 
    • b. Stakeholders
    • c. Citizens
    • d. Managers
  55. Enterprise environmental factors, organizational process assets, the project scope statement, activity list, activity attributes, activity resource requirements, resource calendars, and the project management plan all include information that affect ____.
    • a. sequencing 
    • b. duration estimating
    • c. resource estimating
    • d. definition
  56. ____ allow for future situations that may be partially planned for.
    • a. Unknown unknowns 
    • b. Contingency reserves
    • c. Management reserves
    • d. Direct reserves
  57. Many organizations claim that one of the advantages of using project management is ____.
    • a. lower worker morale 
    • b. lower quality
    • c. lower profit margins
    • d. lower costs
  58. During the early phases of a project, only ____ cause(s) more conflict than schedules.
    • a. priorities 
    • b. manpower
    • c. cost
    • d. technical opinions
  59. The goal of the activity ____ process is to ensure that the project team has complete understanding of all the work they must do as part of the project scope so they can start scheduling the work.
    • a. definition 
    • b. resource estimating
    • c. sequencing
    • d. duration estimating
  60. Which of the following is a planning process falling under the Project Integration Management knowledge area?
    • a. Quality planning 
    • b. Develop project management plan
    • c. Create WBS 
    • d. Schedule development
  61. The ____ is that portion of the approved total cost estimate planned to be spent on an activity during a given period.
    • a. EV 
    • b. AC
    • c. PV
    • d. RP
  62. The ____ is the ratio of earned value to actual cost and can be used to estimate the projected cost of completing the project.
    • a. CV 
    • b. SV
    • c. SPI
    • d. CPI
  63. The ____ for an activity is the latest possible time an activity might begin without delaying the project finish date.
    • a. early finish date
    • b. late finish date
    • c. late start date 
    • d. early start date
  64. The goal of scope ____ is to influence the factors that cause scope changes, assure changes are processed according to procedures developed as part of integrated change control, and manage changes when they occur.
    • a. control 
    • b. verification
    • c. definition
    • d. planning
  65. A project ____ is a collection of project phases.
    • a. planning cycle 
    • b. strategy
    • c. life cycle
    • d. phase cycle
  66. What works on one project may not work on another, so it is essential for project managers to continue to develop their knowledge and ____ in managing projects.
    • a. time 
    • b. funding
    • c. resources
    • d. skills
  67. The ultimate goal of ____ is to create a realistic project schedule that provides a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the project.
    • a. activity duration estimating 
    • b. activity sequencing
    • c. activity definition
    • d. schedule development
  68. Scope ____ involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by the stakeholders.
    • a. planning 
    • b. verification
    • c. definition
    • d. control
  69. The ____ is the ratio of actual work completed to the percentage of work planned to have been completed at any given time during the life of the project or activity
    • a. RP 
    • b. EV
    • c. PV
    • d. AC
  70. The cost baseline, performance reports, change requests, and project funding requirements are inputs to the cost____ process.
    • a. consolidation 
    • b. control
    • c. budgeting
    • d. estimating
  71. Project managers should focus on ____ costs, since they can control them.
    • a. sunk 
    • b. indirect
    • c. intangible
    • d. direct
  72. The Project Procurement Management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activities of requesting seller responses and selecting sellers.
    • a. monitoring and controlling 
    • b. initiating
    • c. executing
    • d. planning
  73. One unique feature of the ____ life cycle model is that developers program in pairs to promote synergy and increase productivity.
    • a. prototyping 
    • b. Extreme Programming
    • c. Rapid Application Development
    • d. Scrum
  74. Which of the following is an output of Human resource planning?
    • a. Project organization charts 
    • b. Process improvement plan
    • c. Risk management plan
    • d. Cost baseline
  75. The ____ is an estimate of the value of the physical work actually completed.
    • a. AC 
    • b. RP
    • c. EV
    • d. PV
  76. PMI provides certification as a Project Management ____ (PMP)--someone who has documented sufficient project experience, agreed to follow the PMI code of professional conduct, and demonstrated knowledge of the field of project management by passing a comprehensive examination.
    • a. Professor 
    • b. Professional
    • c. Producer
    • d. Practitioner
  77. Because a project often requires resources from various areas, many projects cross ____ or other boundaries to achieve their unique purpose.
    • a. financial 
    • b. spatial
    • c. technological
    • d. departmental
  78. ____ processes include devising and maintaining a workable scheme to ensure that the project addresses the organization’s needs.
    • a. Monitoring and controlling 
    • b. Initiating
    • c. Executing
    • d. Planning
  79. In early phases of a project life cycle, resource needs are usually ____ and the level of uncertainty is ____.
    • a. low; high 
    • b. high; high
    • c. high; low
    • d. low; low
  80. Having team members help create a detailed schedule and provide timely status information is an example of____.
    • a. discipline 
    • b.negotiation
    • c. empowerment
    • d. incentives
  81. The main goal of the cost ____ process is to produce a cost baseline for measuring project performance and project funding requirements.
    • a. estimating 
    • b. consolidation
    • c. budgeting
    • d. control
  82. ____ costs are costs that are not directly related to the products or services of the project, but are indirectly related to performing the project.
    • a. Direct 
    • b. Intangible
    • c. Tangible
    • d. Indirect
  83. A(n) ____ focuses on long-term goals and big-picture objectives, while inspiring people to reach those goals.
    • a. assistant
    • b. manager 
    • c. leader
    • d. CEO
  84. Project ____ management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project successfully.
    • a. quality 
    • b. time
    • c. cost
    • d. scope
  85. In a(n) ____ organizational structure, personnel often report to both a functional manager and one or more project managers.
    • a. functional 
    • b. project
    • c. system
    • d. matrix
  86. The ____ is the total direct and indirect costs incurred in accomplishing work on an activity during a given period.
    • a. AC 
    • b. PV
    • c. RP
    • d. EV
  87. ____ dependencies involve relationships between project and non-project activities.
    • a. Mandatory 
    • b. Discretionary
    • c. Internal
    • d. External
  88. In the example of the project of building a house, the sponsors would be the potential ____.
    • a. contractors 
    • b. homeowners
    • c. support staff
    • d. managers
  89. ____ is a method for determining the estimated annual costs and benefits for a project and the resulting annual cash flow.
    • a. Life cycle costing 
    • b. Profit margin analysis
    • c. Cash flow analysis
    • d. Cost estimating
  90. Outputs from ____ include performance measurements, requested changes, recommended corrective actions, and updates to the schedule model data, the schedule baseline, organizational process assets, the activity list and attributes, and the project management plan.
    • a. schedule control 
    • b. schedule development
    • c. activity duration estimating
    • d. activity resource estimating
  91. ____ is the ratio of revenues to profits.
    • a. Cost margin 
    • b. Profit margin
    • c. Cost structure
    • d. Profit
  92. The project ____ usually provides direction and funding for the project.
    • a. leader 
    • b. sponsor
    • c. manager
    • d. director
  93. The longest path through a network diagram that determines the earliest completion of a project is called the____ path.
    • a. vital 
    • b. critical 
    • c. important
    • d. essential
  94. A(n) ____ is a time-phased budget that project managers use to measure and monitor cost performance.
    • a. cost baseline 
    • b. budget baseline
    • c. ledger
    • d. cost line
  95. The ____ should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project.
    • a. scope statement 
    • b. Gantt chart
    • c. WBS
    • d. project charter
  96. The ____ approach involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail.
    • a. mind-mapping 
    • b. top-down
    • c. analogy
    • d. bottom-up
  97. The Project Communications Management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activity of information distribution.
    • a. executing 
    • b. initiating
    • c. monitoring and controlling
    • d. planning
  98. A(n) ____ estimate is used to allocate money into an organization’s budget.
    • a. final 
    • b. budgetary
    • c. definitive
    • d. rough order of magnitude
  99. Project ____ management involves generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information.
    • a. resource 
    • b. communications
    • c. risk
    • d. procurement
  100. The term ____ describes a product produced as part of a project.
    • a. scope 
    • b. outcome
    • c. end-product
    • d. deliverable
Card Set
BUS472 Midterm
Business Project Management