Bio Chapter 20

  1. recombinant DNA
    DNA molecules formed when segments of DNA from two different sources are combined in vitro
  2. biotechnology
    the manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products
  3. genetic engineering
    the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
  4. plasmids
    • small circular DNAmolecules that replicate separately from the bacterial chromosome
    • use for cloning and insert DNA from another source = recombinant bacterium
    • bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) - large plasmids
  5. restriction enzymes
    protect the bacterial cell by cutting up foreign DNA from other organisms or phages
  6. restriction fragments
    • have at least one single stranded end, called a sticky end
    • can be made permanent by the enzyme DNA ligase
  7. cloning vector
    • original plasmid, defined as a DNA molecule that can carry foreign DNA into a host cell and replicate there
    • 2: multiply rapidly, readily obtained from commercial suppliers
  8. expression vector
    a cloning vector that contains a highly active bacterial promoterjust upstream of a restriction site where the eukaryoticgene can be inserted in the correct reading frame
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Bio Chapter 20